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Table 3 Final hierarchical pain predictive model

From: Predictors of pain in general ageing populations: results from a multi-country analysis based on ATHLOS harmonized database

 Model 4: significant baseline and follow-up predictors
(N = 13,545)
OR (95%CI)Z (p-value)
Baseline Variables
 Female gender1.34 (1.18–1.51)4.61 (<.001)
 Engage in vigorous exercise2.51 (2.18–2.89)12.71 (<.001)
 Bereavement1.88 (1.65–2.15)9.39 (<.001)
 Obesity1.36 (1.18–1.57)4.20 (<.001)
Follow-up Variables
 Low energy level/Fatigue1.93 (1.68–2.20)9.27 (<.001)
 Self-rated health – average to moderate (vs. good)1.57 (1.36–1.82)6.04 (<.001)
 Self-rated health – poor (vs. good)2.20 (1.71–2.83)6.13 (<.001)
 Difficulties with walking1.69 (1.43–1.99)6.12 (<.001)
 Sleep problems1.80 (1.58–2.05)8.97 (<.001)
  1. Note: Hosmer-Lemeshow’s p-value = .001; AUC 0.77 (95% CI 0.76–0.78)