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Table 1 Sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of the study sample

From: Use of outpatient medical care by headache patients in Germany: a population-based cross-sectional study

Variable Total sample
(N = 949)
Physician consultation p value (adj.)d
Yes
(N = 481)
No
(N = 468)
Sex, n (%) Men 358 (37.7) 162 (33.6)c 196 (41.9) .045a
Women 592 (62.3) 320 (66.4)c 272 (58.1)  
(missings n = 0)     
Age group, n (%) 14–34 years 252 (26.6) 102 (21.2) 150 (32.1) .006b
35–54 years 355 (37.4) 190 (39.5) 165 (35.3)  
55–74 years 269 (28.3) 154 (32.0) 115 (24.6)  
≥75 years 73 (7.7) 35 (7.3) 38 (8.1)  
(missings n = 0)     
School education, n (%) Lower education 725 (76.6) 377 (78.5) 348 (74.5) .52b
Higher education 206 (21.8) 97 (20.2) 109 (23.3)  
Still in school 16 (1.7) 6 (1.3) 10 (2.1)  
(missings n = 3)     
Work schedule, n (%) Full-time 376 (40.0) 164 (34.5) 212 (45.6) .002b
Part-time 177 (18.8) 107 (22.5) 70 (15.1)  
Pensioners 218 (23.2) 125 (26.3) 93 (20.0)  
Other 170 (18.1) 80 (16.8) 90 (19.4)  
(missings n = 6)     
Occupational group, n (%) Employed manual workers 192 (20.6) 112 (23.9) 80 (17.2) .045b
Employees / Officials 605 (64.8) 301 (64.2) 304 (65.5)  
Self-employed persons 68 (7.3) 24 (5.1) 44 (9.5)  
Persons who never had a job 68 (7.3) 32 (6.8) 36 (7.8)  
(missings n = 12)     
Composition of household, n (%) Living together 745 (78.5) 385 (80.0) 360 (76.9) .52a
Living alone 204 (21.5) 96 (20.0) 108 (23.1)  
(missings n = 0)     
Residential environment, n (%) Rural 122 (12.9) 72 (15.0) 50 (10.7) .163a
Urban 827 (87.1) 409 (85.0) 418 (89.3)  
(missings n = 0)     
Headache days per month (HDM), n (%) < 1 360 (37.9) 111 (23.1) 249 (53.2) < .001b
1–3 399 (42.0) 234 (48.6) 165 (35.3)  
4–14 145 (15.3) 100 (20.8) 45 (9.6)  
≥15 45 (4.7) 36 (7.5) 9 (1.9)  
(missings n = 0)     
Adverse headache impact (HIT-6), n (%) No or little impact 395 (42.4) 132 (27.6) 263 (57.9) < .001b
Moderate impact 235 (25.2) 121 (25.3) 114 (25.1)  
Substantial impact 109 (11.7) 73 (15.3) 36 (7.9)  
Severe impact 193 (20.7) 152 (31.8) 41 (9.0)  
(missings n = 16)     
  1. Weighted random sample; hrs/wk., hours per week
  2. a Fisher’s exact test
  3. b Pearson’s χ2test
  4. c Please note that the sum of men and women among consulters slightly deviates from the overall number because the weighted data
  5. d Adjusted p values based on the Holm-Bonferroni method
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