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Table 2 Studies reporting economic burden of migraine

From: Prevalence, burden, and clinical management of migraine in China, Japan, and South Korea: a comprehensive review of the literature

CitationCountry/
region
Study design
Study dates
Migraine criteriaMigraine (n)
Age, y
% F
Main findings
Yu, 2012 [29]China / MainlandPopulation-based
2009
ICHD-II469 respondents
Mean 46.2 y
67.6 F
Over the past 3 mo, average (SD):
• Days of missed work 2.7 (7.5)
• Impaired work days 4.0 (8.1)
• Missed housework days 3.3 (7.1)
• Impaired housework days 4.7 (8.6)
Indirect costs due to migraine-related lost productivity: CNY 273.7 billion (USD 39.4 billion)
Direct costs (diagnosis / treatment out-of-pocket expenses) per person affected year: CNY 729
Direct costs per year CNY 58.0 billion (USD 8.4 billion)
Total annual cost of migraine per year: CNY 331.7 billion (USD 47.8 billion)
Fuh, 2008 [33]China / TaiwanPopulation-based
1997–1998
IHS migraine and modified migraine (IHS and attacks 2- to 4-h duration)1813 employees
NR
43.2 F
1809 non-employees
NR
NR
Over the past 1 y:
• Median no. of missed days/employee, 2 days
• Estimated median cost due to missed workdays/person in subjects with migraine vs without migraine: NTD 1667 vs NTD 0, P < 0.001
Projected annual number of missed workdays and economic loss attributed to migraine in 2005:
• 3.7 million missed workdays/y (3.06 million in women, 0.64 million in men)
• Estimated annual cost of migraine was NTD 4873/person
• Estimated cost of NTD 4.6 billion/y due to lost workdays
• Women accounted for ~ 80% of total cost (~ 56% of total cost attributed to women aged 35–54 y)
Tang, 2013 [38]China / TaiwanCross-sectional other: retrospective case-control analysis of NHIRD
1996–2009
Refractory migraine (ICD-9-CM)936 patients with refractory migraine vs 3743 non-migraine controls
Mean 42 y 76 F
673 patients with refractory migraine vs 2202 with other migraine
Mean age 41–42 y
79–80 F
All analyses adjusted for age, gender, urbanization level, income, and comorbidities
Refractory migraine vs non-migraine adjusted for sociodemographic factors/comorbidity, mean (SD)
Frequency of care:
• Outpatient visits: 35.5 (33.2) vs 16.5 (14.4), P < 0.0001
• Emergency visits: 1.2 (1.3) vs 0.3 (0.3), P < 0.0001
• Hospital admission: 0.7 (0.8) vs 0.3 (0.3), P < 0.0001
• Hospital days: 7.1 (11.5) vs 2.4 (4.7), P < 0.0001
Annual total drug costs per person: NTD 19,752 (USD 608) vs NTD 8660 (USD 266), P < 0.0001
Annual total medical costs per person: NTD 57,932 (USD 1783) vs NTD 26,817 (USD 825), P < 0.0001
Refractory migraine vs other migraine adjusted for sociodemographic factors/comorbidity, mean (SD)
Frequency of care:
• Outpatient visits: 36.3 (23.0) vs 26.2 (12.3), P < 0.0001
• Emergency visits: 1.4 (1.6) vs 0.5 (0.5), P < 0.0001
• Hospital admission: 0.6 (0.8) vs 0.3 (0.3), P < 0.0001
• Hospital days 7.0 (10.9) vs 2.7 (5.1), P < 0.0001
Annual total drug costs per person: NTD 17,623 (USD 542) vs NTD 10,088 (USD 310), P < 0.0001
Annual total medical costs per person: NTD 54,678 (USD 1682) vs NTD 38,397 (USD 1181), P < 0.0001
Takeshima, 2004 [53]JapanPopulation-based
1999
IHS342 adults
≥20 y 81.6 F
Over the past 3 mo:
• 20.3% had time off work due to headache
• 25.8% with MWA had time off work (mean no. of days: 1.8)
• 19.5% with MOA had time off work (mean no. of days: 3.8)
• 27.3% with MWA were unable to do housework (mean no. of days: 2.0)
• 28.0% with MOA were unable to do housework (mean no. of days: 2.8)
Suzuki, 2014 [52]JapanCommunity-based
2007–2008
ICHD-II704 Tokyo employees
≥20 y 77.4 F
25.1% had to miss work because of headache
2.7% could not work once per mo
Choi, 2018 [54]South KoreaCross-sectional other: prospective disease registry
2016–2018
ICHD-IIIβ38a adults
Mean, 37.6 y
15.7 F
Employed patients with migraine compared with employed control patients without headache:
• Experienced difficulty at work (63.9% vs 36.5%)
• Had low productivity (33.3% vs 11.5%)
• Greater sick leave (13.9% vs 3.8%)
Migraine or TTH was significantly associated with difficulties at work after adjustment for health, anxiety, and stress (OR 3.05; 95% CI, 1.10–8.49; P = 0.032)
  1. a This study enrolled 143 patients with cluster headache, 38 age- and sex-matched patients with migraine or TTH, which included 5 patients had chronic migraine, 25 with episodic migraine, and 8 with TTH (4 chronic and 4 episodic), and 52 individuals without headache. Patients with cluster headache are not reported here
  2. CI confidence interval; CNY Chinese yen; F female; ICHD-I/II/IIIβ International Classification of Headache Disorders; IHS International Headache Society; MOA migraine without aura; MWA migraine with aura; NHIRD Taiwan National National Health Insurance Database; NR not reported; NTD New Taiwanese dollar; OR odds ratio; SD standard deviation; TTH tension-type headache; USD United States dollar
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