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Table 5 Burden of headache, acute medication use and health-related quality of life by headache diagnosis (N = 2562)

From: Prevalence and burden of headache in children and adolescents in Austria – a nationwide study in a representative sample of pupils aged 10–18 years

 No headache (n = 824)UdH (n = 884)All migraine (n = 821)All TTH (n = 731)H15+ (n = 101)Test statistic, p-valuef
Headache burden (reported at least once in previous 4 weeks) (% of participants)
 Headache-attributed lost time:
  Missed whole school day11.0%a20.5%b11.3%a31.3%cChi2 = 47.3, p < 0.001
  Left school early7.6%a15.2%b9.0%a24.2%cChi2 = 35.6, p < 0.001
  Missed other activities26.8%a57.3%b34.5%c60.2%bChi2 = 141.6, p < 0.001
 School performance (mean, SD)e2.1 (0.8)a, b2.1 (0.8)a2.3 (0.8)b2.2 (0.8)a, b2.3 (0.90)bF = 6.7, p < 0.001
Acute medication use in previous 4 weeks
 Participants (%)28.5a58.7b43.9c67.3bChi2 = 128.9, p < 0.001
 Number of days (mean, SD)0.8 (2.5)a1.8 (2.6)b1.0 (1.7)a6.5 (7.6)cF = 121.4, p < 0.001
Health-related quality of life (HrQoL)
 Overall HrQoL52.9 (10.8)a53.9 (9.5)a47.5 (11.2)b50.6 (10.4)c43.1 (11.9)dF = 56.3, p < 0.001
  Self-perception51.0 (9.7)a50.9 (9.2)a46.4 (10.0)b48.2 (9.9)b42.9 (10.8)cF = 42.3, p < 0.001
  Parent-relation and home life53.9 (9.2)a53.6 (8.7)a50.3 (11.1)b51.9 (9.7)a, b44.8 (13.9)cF = 31.6, p < 0.001
  Social support and peers52.6 (9.4)a53.1 (8.7)a51.6 (9.8)a52.1 (8.8)a49.6 (13.2)bF = 4.8, p = 0.001
  School environment52.7 (10.5)a, c53.4 (8.8)a48.4 (10.1)b50.9 (9.3)c45.6 (12.6)dF = 39.5, p < 0.001
  Bullying50.7 (10.6)a51.9 (8.9)a50.4 (10.2)a50.7 (9.7)a47.3 (14.3)bF = 6.4, p < 0.001
  1. UdH Undifferentiated headache, TTH Tension-type headache, H15+ Headache on ≥15 days/month. a,b,c,dThese superscript notations indicate groups differing significantly on Tukey post-hoc analyses. eOn scale 1–4 where 1 = very good, 4 = below average (see text). fBonferroni corrections applied to significance values to adjust for multiple comparisons of headache burden measures (p = 0.013) and of HrQoL measures (p = 0.008)
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