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Table 2 NOS for Cross-sectional and Cohort studies Quality Assessment using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale

From: The association between headache and low back pain: a systematic review

CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES Selection Comparability Outcomes TOTAL (maximum 10✯) Overall Quality Assessment (AHRQ standards)
Representiveness of exposed cohort Sample Size Non-respondents Ascertainment of the exposure (risk factor) Assessment of outcomes Statistical test
Child and Adolescent Studies
 Ghandour et al., 2004 [15] ✯✯ ✯✯ 8✯ Good
 Sjolie et al., 2002 [16] ✯✯ 7✯ Good
 Swain 2014 [17] ✯✯ 7✯ Good
Adult Studies
 Ashina et al. 2018 [18] ✯✯ ✯✯ 8✯ Good
 Bejia et al. 2005 [19] 5✯ Poor
 Bener 2015 [20] 7✯ Good
 Yoon 2013 [10] ✯✯ ✯✯ 7✯ Good
Older Adult Studies
 Ahangar 2016 [21] ✯✯ 5✯ Poor
Twin Studies
 Hartvigsen et al., 2004 (Hartvigsen et al., 2003) [22, 23] ✯✯ 8✯ Good
 Hestbaek et al., 2004 [24] 5✯ Fair
 Schur 2007 [25] 5✯ Fair
COHORT STUDIES Selection Comparability Outcomes TOTAL (maximum 9✯) Overall Quality Assessment (AHRQ standards)
Representiveness of exposed cohort Selection of non-exposed cohort Ascertainment of exposure Outcome not present at the start of the study Assessment of outcomes Length of follow-up Adequacy of follow-up
Child and Adolescent Studies
 Jones et al., 2003 [26] 7✯ Good
Adult Studies
 Angst et al. 2017 [27] ✯✯ 9✯ Good
 Hestbaek et al., 2006 [28] ✯✯ 8✯ Good