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Table 1 Study Characteristics

From: The association between headache and low back pain: a systematic review

Study ID Country Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria Definitions Size of population (n) Age Male (%)
Headache Back pain
Cross-sectional Studies
 Child and Adolescent Studies
  Ghandour et al., 2004 [15] USA Female adolescents (grades 6–10). Self-reported headache. Self-reported LBP 8370 12–16 years (range). 0 (0)
  Sjolie et al., 2002 [16] Norway Pupils aged 14–16 years. Self-reported weekly headache. LBP, measured by a Nordic questionnaire. 88 14.1–16.1 years (range). 50 (57)
  Swain et al., 2014 [17] Europe, America, Israel) Ages 11, 13, 15 years. Self-reported headache. Self-reported LBP. 404 206 9.8–17.3 years (range). 197 094 (49)
 Adult Studies
  Ashina et al. 2018 [18] Denmark Ages 25–65 years from Danish Civil Registration System Self-reported headache. Self-reported LBP. 1300 49.1, 13.9 (mean, SD) Not reported
  Bejia et al. 2005 [19] Tunisia Staff at Fattouma Bourguiba Teaching Hospital. Self-reported migraine. Self-reported LBP. 350 37, 7.8 (mean, SD 7.88) 18–60 (range). 178 (51)
  Bener et al., 2015 [20] Qatar Ages 15–65 years from primary care. None given. Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. 1829 15–65 years (range). 934 (51)
  Yoon et al., 2013 [10] Germany Ages 18–65 years. Self-reported headache. Self-reported LBP. 9944 43, 13.1 (mean, SD). 4703 (47)
 Older Adult Studies
  Ahangar et al. 2016 [21] Iran Ages > 60 years from Amirkola town. Self-reported headache. Self-reported LBP. 1499 Frequency of age ranges: 60–64 (36.9%)
65–69 (30%)
70–74 (17.6%)
75–79 (15%)
80–84 (6%)
85–99 (3%)
832 (55)
 Twin Studies
  Hartvigsen et al., 2004 [22] (Hartvigsen et al., 2003 [23]) Denmark Danish twin study.Twins aged > 75 years. Self-reported migraine. Self-reported LBP. 4484 70–102 years (range). N/A
Hestbaek et al., 2004 [24] Denmark Danish twin study. Twin aged 12–22 years Self-reported headache. Self-reported LBP.Self- 9567 Frequency of age ranges:
12–13 (n = 1492).
14–16 (n = 2533).
17–19 (n = 2668).
20–22 (n = 2874).
4580 (49)
Schur et al., 2007 [25] USA Twins from the University of Washington Twin Registry (UWTR). Self-reported a doctor’s diagnosis headache. Self-reported a doctor’s diagnosis LBP. 3982 32.4, 14.7 (mean, SD). 1536 (39)
Cohort Studies
 Child and Adolescent Studies
  Jones et al., 2003 [26] UK Ages 11 to 14 years, from 39 secondary schools. Self-reported headache. Self-reported LBP. 933 11–14 years (range). Not reported.
 Adult Studies
  Angst et al., 2017 [27] Switzerland A representative age cohort of the general population of the canton of Zurich. Self-reported headache. Self-reported LBP. 4547 27/28 in 1986, then 49/50 in 2008. 1071
 Twin Studies
  Hestbaek et al., 2006 [28] Denmark Danish twins born between: 1972–1982. Aged 12–22 years Self-reported headache. Nordic Back pain questionnaire. Baseline: 9,600 (84%). Follow up: 6554. 17.27 (11–22) (mean, baseline).
17.38 (11–22) (mean, follow-up).
Baseline: 4654
(48%). Follow up: 2868 (44%).
  1. 1 LBP, Low back pain