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Table 2 List of Elementary Visual Symtpoms (EVSs)  of migraine aura as reported in literature and the range of their frequency in the studies

From: Clinical features of visual migraine aura: a systematic review

Elementary Visual Symptoms of aura Frequency (range %)
1. Flashes of bright light / unformed flashes of light / star-shaped figures 16–38
2. ‘Foggy’/blurred vision or “dimness” 25–54
3. Zigzag or jagged lines 24–81
4. Scotoma 23–77
5. Blind spots (scotomata) 32
6. Black dots 3–17
7. Phosphenes (small bright dots) 19–70
8. Flickering light 12–91
9. ‘Like looking through heat waves or water’ 8–24
10. Visual snow 7
11. White Spots 7–22
12. ‘Bean-like’ forms like a crescent or C-shaped 7
13. Hemianopsia 6–24
14. Deformed images (alteration of line/ angles) / Metamorphopsia 2–6
15. ‘Tunnel’ vision 4–27
16. Curved or circular lines 4–18
17. Round forms 12
18. Colored dots / spots of light 3–19
19. Oscillopsia /autokinesis (movement of stationary objects) 2–4
20. Like a mosaic 13
21. Fractured Vision 1
22. Corona phenomena 2–18
23. Anopia 1–2
24. Things look farther away than they really are 1–13
25. Things look closer than they really are 1–3
26. Macropsia (things look larger than they really are) 1–3
27. Micropsia (things look smaller than they really are) 2–4
28. “Like a negative of film” 1
29. “Slanted vision” 1
30. Complex hallucinations 1–3
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