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Table 1 Main results and main themes of selected publications

From: A narrative review on the burden of migraine: when the burden is the impact on people’s life

Reference Country Sample size Main themes Study’s main results
Prevalence Overall impact Work/school impact Family impact Interictal burden Cost
Raggi 2018 [39] Italy 373      A new questionnaire to address migraine impact on work-related activities is presented.
Al-Hashel 2017 [21] Kuwait 3588     Prevalence of EM in Kuwait is 23.1%; patients lost 2 workdays/3 M and further 4.2 of household and leisure activities
D’Amico 2018 [40] Italy 194      CM patients with 2+ comorbidities showed lower QoL and higher disability compared to those with one or less comorbidities, and were more likely to be unemployed (73.7% vs 25.8%)
Rastenytė 2017 [22] Lithuania 137     Prevalence of EM in Lithuania was 18.8%, for pMOH 3.2%; patients lost 2.8 workdays/3 M and further 6.5 of household and leisure activities
Lipton 2017 [63] US 13,064       A new questionnaire to address migraine impact on partners and adolescent children is presented.
D’Amico 2017 [59] Italy 135      CM patients at the time of withdrawal lost 22.3 workdays/3 M; one-year CM cost was estimated at 10730€, and 61% of that cost was indirect
Steiner 2016 [23] India 615      Prevalence of EM in Karnataka was 25.2%, for pMOH 1.2%; the day before, 14% of patients lost all productive time, and 47% lost more than half
Lampl 2016 [9] EU countries 3208       Interictal burden was reported by 10–26% of EM patients and by 29–41% of pMOH.
Messali 2016 [41] US 1205     Patients lost 0.9 workdays/3 M and further 8.4 of household activities. Total cost of EM was 2649$/year, of CM 8243$/year; 60–64% of cost was due to direct medical costs
Raggi 2016 [42] Italy 80       A new questionnaire to address psycho-social difficulties in brain disorders is used in EM patients for the first time; higher levels of PSD were predicted by younger age, higher migraine frequency, higher comorbidities index, and smoking status
Manandhar 2015 [43] Nepal 774      Patients lost 2.3 workdays/3 M and further 11.4 of household and leisure activities; EM and pMOH patients had worse QoL compared to non-headache patients.
Berra 2015 [44] Italy 92      Patients lost 8,8 workdays/3 M and further 12.9 of household activities. Total direct healthcare cost of EM was 521€/year, of CM 2250€/year.
Pavlović 2015 [45] US 1697       Patients with migraine related to menses reported higher disability and disease impact
Queiroz 2015 [24] Brazil 2345       Prevalence of EM in Brazil is 15.8%,of pMOH is 6.1%; patients with migraine and pMOH showed higher disability compared to TTH.
Raggi 2015 [46] Italy 194       CM patients report higher disability compared to normative scores; patients with higher severity report worse QoL and disability; patients lost 6 workdays/3 M and further 20 in homework and leisure activities.
D’Amico 2015 [47] Italy 296      EM and CM have a relevant impact on work-related difficulties, and patients reporting higher difficulties in work-related tasks also show problems in tasks unrelated to work.
Wöber-Bingöl 2014 [48] Austria 472     44.9% of pupils reduced or missed school-days; QoL was worse consistently with headache frequency; parents had to reduce workforce participation to care for children during attacks.
Steiner et al. 2014 [17] EU countries 2109   Prevalence of EM in EU is 22.2%, of pMOH is 3.3%; patients lost 4.6 workdays/3 M and further 9.8 days of household and leisure activities; overall impact, interictal burden and family burden increased consistently with increased headache frequency.
Ayzenberg et al. 2014 [25] Russia 411     Prevalence of EM in Russia is 20.3%; patients lost 0.2 workdays/3 M and further 2 days of household and leisure activities; patients with EM showed higher impact compared to those with TTH and higher indirect costs.
Raggi 2014 [14] Global 51,135       Specific difficulties in work-related tasks are poorly addressed and are confined to few activities, the most common being speaking and driving
Raggi 2012 [13] Global 20,852       EM has a pervasive impact on several life domains, which is influenced by pain severity and headache frequency
Bloudek 2012 [49] EU countries 5657      Patients with CM reported higher disability compared to those with EM; the average direct cost of EM was 746€/year, that of CM was 2427€/year
Manhalter 2012 [50] Hungary 168       Patients with EM had lower QoL compared to those with TTH
Yu 2012 [26] China 5041     Prevalence of EM in China was 9.3%, of pMOH was 1.6%; patients with EM and pMOH had worse QoL and higher disability compared to TTH and no-headache; EM and pMOH had higher cost compared to TTH
Silva Junior 2012 [27] Brazil 47       Prevalence of migraine (EM and CM) is 18.2%
Buse 2012 [51] US 6927       CM has higher impact compared to EM
Linde 2012 [66] EU countries 2844       The mean per person annual cost of EM was 1222€, that of MOH was 3561€; indirect cost accounted for more than 90% of total cost
Cooke 2010 [28] Canada 1210       Migraine prevalence among females in Canada is 26%
Stovner 2010 [29] EU countries 170,000       Prevalence of EM is estimated at 14.7% among adults and at 9.2% among children; prevalence of pMOH is estimated at 4% among adults and around 1% among children
Leonardi 2010 [52] Italy 102       EM patients report lower QoL and higher disability compared to normative scores; patients with higher severity report worse QoL and disability; patients lost 6 workdays/3 M and further 20 in homework and leisure activities.
Munakata 2009 [60] US 7796      Patients with EM lost 4.7 workdays/year, those with CM 26.7; per-person/year cost of EM was 1757$, of CM was 7750$
Radtke 2009 [30] Germany 769      Prevalence of migraine in Germany is 10.6%; compared to other headache sufferers, migraineurs were more likely to report higher disability rates, consume more analgesics and attend medical consultation
Stovner 2006 [31] Global 5465       Prevalence of EM was 14%, of CM 4%
Dueland 2005 [32] Global 760      Prevalence of EM was 42% in young women; 86% reported negative impact on daily life activities
Lipton 2005 [33] Global 18,897       Prevalence of EM was 9.2%
Bussone 2004 [53] Italy 414      Patients with CM reported higher disability compared to those with EM; patients lost 13.1 workdays/3 M and further 30.3 of household and leisure activities.
Vicente-Herrero 2004 [61] Spain 436      After an on-work consultation (acute and prophylactic treatment plus lifestyle-related advices) patients reduced the total workdays lost equivalent from 0.5 days/month to 0.1; total per-migraine headache productivity cost was reduced from 34.5€ to 4.6€.
Pradalier 2004 [34] France 880     Prevalence of EM in France is 7.9%,of pMOH 3%; EM patients lost 0.5 workdays/3 M and further 0.6 of reduced productivity; total direct cost of EM was 128€/year
MacGregor 2004 [54] Global 866     Patients lost 5.5 workdays/3 M and further 13.4 days of household and leisure activities; most of partners of patients reported that living with a migraineur has moderate/strong impact on family life and leisure time
Stonks 2004 [65] The Netherlands 24       During inter-ictal periods, compared with healthy controls migraine patients spent relatively less time being active and, when active, their overall body mobility was lower; they also reported higher sleepiness and lower vigour
Ware 2003 [55] US/UK 221       Patients with migraine reported higher HIT-6 scores compared to patients with other headache disorders
Lipton 2003 [56] US/UK 389      Approximately half of the patients reported limitations in daily family activities; the majority reported limitations in activities dealing with children.
Edmeads 2002 [62] US 1079      Patients missed approximately 50% more workdays compared to controls, attended more outpatient visits and ER access, and reported global disease cost at 1242$/year, 3,4% higher compared to non-migraine controls
Lipton 2001 [35] Global 10,654      Prevalence of migraine in the general population across studies was 8.3%, higher in women than in men (between + 7% and + 279%); on average, direct cost was between 100 and 800$ per patient/year
Gerth 2001 [57] Global 2604      Patients lost 4.9 workdays/3 M and further 4 days of household activities
Lipton 2001 [36] US 6915      Prevalence of migraine in US population is around 12%; more than half of patients reported severe disability/bed rest as impact of migraine
Michel 1997 [58] France 989      A total of 49.1% of migraine patients reported health impairment, which was higher than healthy controls; also, patients showed higher anxiety levels and lower QoL. Migraineurs were more likely to report sick leave compared to controls (73% vs. 65.7%) and to lose more than 8 workdays/year (61% vs. 49%). Finally, they reported lower work performance
Solomon et al. 1997 [37] Global 6794     Prevalence of migraine is 10.7%; migraineurs reported worse QoL scores; patients with migraine lost between 2 and 7 workdays per year
Abu-Arefeh et al. 1994 [38] UK 159      Migraine prevalence among school-aged children was 10.6%; children with migraine lost 4.1 schooldays because of migraine
  1. Notes. EM Episodic Migraine, CM Chronic Migraine, TTH Tension-Type Headache, pMOH probable Medication Overuse Headache, QoL Quality of Life, EU European Union, HIT-6, six-item Headache Impact Test