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Table 1 Quantitative association between migraine and psychiatric comorbidities in observational studies. Studies reporting the proportions of comorbidities (first column) may not coincide with those reporting the effect sizes of associations (fourth column)

From: Understanding the nature of psychiatric comorbidity in migraine: a systematic review focused on interactions and treatment implications

Comparison Proportion of comorbidity in migraine (%) Proportion of migraine in comorbidity (%) No. of studies with positive association/ total studies Effect size range Reported potential confounders (no. of studies)
Episodic migraine vs no migraine
 Depression [15, 17, 22, 43, 46, 73, 74, 82, 131, 161, 165,166,167,168,169,170,171,172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179] 5.6 to 73.7 9.9 to 55 13/14 cross-sectional 4/4 case-control1/1 prospective cohort1/1 retrospective cohort [17, 22, 46, 55, 73, 74, 131, 161, 167, 169, 171,172,173,174,175,176,177,178, 180] OR 0.8 to 5.8; HR 2.75; PR 2.7 Age (14), sex (16), education (9), income (4), residence area (2), marital status (2), race (1), smoking (1), urbanization level (1), self-rated health (1), sleep habits (1), high blood pressure (1), cervical pain (1), low back pain (1), asthma (1)
 Bipolar disorder [15, 17, 43,44,45,46, 168, 181,182,183,184] 0.99 to 5.4 15.7 to 55.3 4/5 cross-sectional [15, 17, 46, 181, 183] OR 0.9 to 3.7 Age (3), sex (3), education (2), income (2), marital status (1), residence (1), urbanization level (1)
 GAD [72, 82, 101, 161, 165, 166, 170, 173, 176] 13.2 to 76.4 - 4/5 cross-sectional [72, 101, 161, 173, 176, 182] OR 2.55 to 5.84 Age (5), sex (5), race (3), education (3), family income (1), marital status (2), smoking (1)
 Panic disorder [15, 17, 72, 76, 77, 161, 165, 166, 170, 173] 0.58 to 61.3 61.1 2/3 cohort6/7 cross-sectional [15, 17, 23, 72, 76, 147, 161, 165, 170, 173] OR 1.23 to 9.6; HR 3.55 Age (4), sex (4), race (2), education (2), income (3), marital status (2), urbanization level (1)
 Simple phobia [161] 29.1 - 1/1 cross-sectional1 prospective [23, 161] OR 1.66 to 2.43 Age (1), sex (1)
 Social phobia [17, 161, 166] 6.7 to 27.0 - 1/2 cross-sectional1/1 prospective [17, 23, 161] OR 1.45 to 14.3 Age (1), sex (1), marital status (1)
 OCD [15, 72, 165, 166] 0.18 to 5.6 - 1/2 cross-sectional [15, 72] OR 2.16 to 3.52 Age (2), sex (2), race (1), education (1), family income (2), marital status (1), SSRI use (1), urbanization level (1)
 PTSD [176, 185] 21.5 to 25.7 - 2/2 cross-sectional [176, 185] OR 1.75 to 3.07 Sex (2), anxiety (2), depression (2), age (1) marital status (1), race (1), education (1), smoking (1), drug/alcohol abuse (1)
 Eating disorders [160] - 22.0 0/1 case-control [160] OR 2.0 Clustered sampling including depression
 Recreational substance abuse [17, 161, 176] 2.3 to 64.5 - 0/3 cross-sectional [23, 161, 176] OR 0.83 to 1.59 Age (3), sex (3), marital status (2), education (2), race (1), smoking (1)
Chronic migraine with or without medication overuse vs no migraine
 Depression [9, 15, 73, 74, 78, 178, 186] 11.0 to 57.0 - 3/4 cross-sectional,1/1 retrospective cohort [9, 15, 73, 74, 178] OR 0.8 to 6.4; RR 5.83 Age (4), sex (3), education (2), income (2), urbanization level (1), deprivation score (1)
 Bipolar disorder [15] 2.35 - 1/1 cross-sectional [15] RR 1.90 Age, sex, income, urbanization level
 GAD [72, 78, 101, 186] 6.8 to 41.8 - 0/1 cohort, 2/2 cross-sectional [72, 78, 101] OR 6.99 to 13.18 Age (1), sex (1), race (1), education (1), income (1), marital status (1)
 Panic disorder [15, 72, 186] 1.37 to 12.5 - 1/1 cohort, 1/1 cross-sectional [15, 72] OR 2.85 to 3.98 Age (2), sex (2), race (1), education (2), income (2), marital status (1)
 Simple phobia - - - - -
 Social phobia [78, 186] 2 to 3.4 - - - -
 OCD [15, 78, 186] 0.11 to 1.1 - 0/1 cross-sectional [15] RR 1.25 Age (1), sex (1), income (1), urbanization level (1)
 PTSD [78, 186] 1 to 2.3 - - - -
 Eating disorders [9, 186] 0 to 0.8 - 1/1 cross-sectional [9] OR 1.48 Age, sex, deprivation score
 Recreational substance abuse [9, 15, 186] 0 to 2.4 - 0/1 cross-sectional [9] OR 0.92 Age, sex, deprivation score
Chronic migraine with or without medication overuse vs episodic migraine
 Depression [15, 18, 187] CM: 5.7 to 39.0; EM: 2.4 to 17.24 - 1/2 cross-sectional1/1 retrospective cohort [15, 18, 187] OR 2.00 to 6.39; RR 1.88 Age (3), sex (2), education (1), income (2), urbanization level (1)
 Bipolar disorder [15] CM: 2.35;EM: 0.99 - 1/1 cross-sectional [15] RR 1.81 Age, sex, income, urbanization level
 GAD [8, 72, 186] CM: 6.8 to 41.8; EM: 9.8 to 23.1 - 1/1 cohort, 1/1 cross-sectional [8, 72] OR 6.0 to 6.99 Age(1), sex (1), race (1), education (1), income (1), marital status (1)
 Panic disorder [8, 15, 72, 186] CM: 1.17 to 24.4; EM: 0.58 to 7.7 - 2/2 cohort,1/1 cross-sectional [8, 15, 72] OR 1.54 to 12.1 Age (2), sex (2), race (1), education (2), income (2), marital status (1)
 Simple phobia - - - - -
 Social phobia [8, 186] CM: 3.4 to 34.1; EM: 0.8 to 12.2 - 1/1 cohort [8] OR 4.3 -
 OCD [15, 186] CM: 0.15 to 1.1; EM: 0.18 to 2.3 - 0/1 cross-sectional [15] RR 0.94 Age (1), sex (1), income (1), urbanization level (1)
 PTSD [186] CM: 2.3;EM: 0 - - - -
 Eating disorders [186] CM: 0;EM: 0.8 - - - -
 Recreational substance abuse [8, 15] CM: 0.15 to 43.9; EM: 0.04 to 14.6 - 1/2 case-control [8, 15] OR 2.30 to 7.6 Age (2), sex (2), income (1), urbanization level (1)
  1. CM chronic migraine, EM episodic migraine, GAD generalized anxiety disorder, HR hazard ratio, OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder, OR odds ratio, PR prevalence ratio, PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder, RR relative risk