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Table 3 Studies evaluating cognitive function in migraine patients > 50 years

From: Cognitive dysfunction and migraine

Migraine Phase Cognitive Domains Affected in Migraine Study design Evaluation Methods Outcome Reference
Interictal Executive functions Cross sectional
Subjects were recruited from primary health care centers
Digit Span Backwards, Stroop test No significant difference between migraine patients and control subjects without headache Martins et al., 2012 [24]
Unspecified   Cross sectional, population based Letter Digit Substitution Test No difference between migraine patients and control subjects regarding sustained attention and mental flexibility Jelicic et al. 2000 [21]
Unspecified   Cross sectional, population based Fluency Test, Symbol Digit Substitution Task, Digit Span Test No difference between migraineurs and non-migraineurs Gaist et al., 2005 [22]
Unspecifieda   Cross sectional, population based Stroop Test, Verbal Fluency Test Migraine patients performed better than participants without migraine Wen et al., 2016 [23]
Unspecifiedb   Longitudinal, population based Stroop Test, Letter Digit Substitution Test, MMSE No significant difference between migraine patients and controls Baars et al., 2010 [29]
Unspecifiedc   Longitudinal, population based Digit Symbol Substitution
Test, Trail Making Test, MMSE, Word Fluency Test
No significant difference between migraine patients and controls Rist et al., 2011 [27]
Unspecifiedd   Longitudinal, population based Category Fluency Task, Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (Telephone adaptation of MMSE) No significant difference between women with migraine or a past history of migraine and women without migraine Rist et al., 2012 [28]
Interictal Attention Cross sectional
Subjects were recruited from primary health care centers
Symbol Search Migraine patients performed worse on the task of attention Martins et al., 2012 [24]
Interictal Visuospatial memory Cross sectional
Subjects were recruited from primary health care centers
WMS-III Delayed Visual Memory, WMS-III Memory for Faces, Famous FacesTest. No difference between migraine patients and controls without headache Martins et al., 2012 [24]
Unspecifiedc   Longitudinal, population based Raven Progressive
Matrics, Benton Visual Retention Test
No significant difference between migraine patients and controls Rist et al., 2011 [27]
Interictal Verbal memory Cross sectional
Subjects were recruited from primary health care centers
California Verbal Learning Test, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Vocabulary Subtest No difference between migraine patients and controls without headache Martins et al., 2012 [24]
Unspecified   Cross sectional, population based Verbal learning test Migraine had no influence on memory in young/middle-aged or older adults Jelicic et al. 2000 [21]
Unspecified   Cross sectional, population based Delayed Word Recall Test No difference between migraineurs and non-migraineurs Gaist et al., 2005 [22]
Unspecifieda   Cross sectional, population based 15-Word Learning
Test
No difference between migraine patients and controls Wen et al., 2016 [23]
Unspecifiedb   Longitudinal, population based Visual Verbal Learning Test, MMSE No difference between migraine patients and controls Baars et al., 2010 [29]
Unspecifiede   Longitudinal, population based Modified version of Rey Verbal Learning Test, MMSE Migraineurs showed significantly less decline over time on the tests of immediate and delayed recall compared to non-migraineurs Kalaydjian et al., 2007 [26]
Unspecifiedc   Longitudinal, population based Rey 15-word Memory Test, Raven Progressive
Matrics
No significant difference between migraine patients and controls Rist et al., 2011 [27]
Unspecifiedd   Longitudinal, population based East Boston Memory Test, 10 Word List Recall, Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (Telephone adaptation of MMSE) The risk of substantial cognitive decline in women with migraine or a past history of migraine was not increased compared to women without migraine Rist et al., 2012 [28]
Unspecifiedc Recognition memory Longitudinal, population based Benton Facial Recognition Test No significant difference between migraine patients and controls Rist et al., 2011 [27]
Unspecified Information processing speed Cross sectional, population based Verbal learning test Migraine had no influence on processing speed in young/middle-aged or older adults Jelicic et al. 2000 [21]
Unspecified   Cross sectional, population based Symbol Digit Substitution Task No difference between migraineurs and non-migraineurs Gaist et al., 2005 [22]
Unspecifieda   Cross sectional, population based Letter–digit substitution test No difference between migraine patients and controls Wen et al., 2016 [23]
Unspecifiedb   Longitudinal, population based Stroop Test, Letter Digit Substitution Test No difference between migraine patients and controls Baars et al., 2010 [29]
Post-ictal, interictal Perceptual organization Cross sectional, clinic based Computerized global-local test No difference between migraine patients and controls regarding perceptual organization capabilities Koppen et al., 2011 [17]
  1. aMigraine patients were categorized as active (< 1 year since the last attack) or non-active (> 1 year since last attack) migraine
  2. bActive migraine patients were included in the study
  3. cPatients with a lifetime history of severe headache had a phone interview with a neurologist for migraine diagnosis
  4. dBoth women with migraine and women with a past history of migraine were included in the study
  5. eTime since the last attack in migraine patients were reported as < 6 months since last attack, 6 months-1 year since last attack and > 1 year since last attack
  6. MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, WMS Wechsler Memory Scale