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Table 4 Medical conditions that may induce a secondary elevation of ICP or produce symptoms that may mimic IIH (adapted from [2, 25, 66,67,68,69])

From: European Headache Federation guideline on idiopathic intracranial hypertension

1. Medical disorders that may induce a sinus vein thrombosis or that may cause a venous outflow obstruction through other mechanisms:
• Thrombophilia and other hypercoagulable conditions
• Systemic lupus erythematodes
• Infections of the middle ear or mastoid
• CNS- infections
• Increased right heart pressure with pulmonary hypertension
• Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
• Superior vena cava syndrome
• Arteriovenous fistulas
• Glomus tumour
• Tumour process that may compress parts of the venous outflow system
2. Medications
• Fluoroquinolones [70]
• Tetracycline
• Vitamin A and retinoids
• Anabolic steroids
• Withdrawal of corticosteroids (in particular after prolonged administration)
• Administration of growth hormone
• Lithium
• Nalidixic acid
• Oral contraceptives
• Levonorgestrel implant system
• Amiodarone
• Cyclosporine
• Cytarabine
3. Other medical conditions
• HIV
• Syphilis
• Borreliosis
• Varicella
• Addison’s disease
• Hypoparathyroidism
• Obstructive sleep apnoea
• Pickwickian syndrome
• Uraemia
• Severe iron deficiency anaemia
• Renal failure
• Turner syndrome
• Down syndrome