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Table 3 Risk (odds ratios [95% CI]) of Medication Overuse Among Respondents with Migraine Currently Using Acute Medication for Headache (N = 13,649)

From: Factors associated with acute medication overuse in people with migraine: results from the 2017 migraine in America symptoms and treatment (MAST) study

  Model
1 2 3 4 5 6
Sociodemographics Psychological symptomsa Headache characteristics Sex-by-allodynia interaction Men Women
Male 1.05 (0.95, 1.17) 1.01 (0.91, 1.13) 1.32 (1.16, 1.50) 1.10 (0.93, 1.31)
Age 1.01 (1.01, 1.02) 1.02 (1.01, 1.02) 1.02 (1.02, 1.03) 1.02 (1.02, 1.03) 1.02 (1.01, 1.03) 1.02 (1.02, 1.03)
Married 1.12 (1.02, 1.24) 1.19 (1.07, 1.31) 1.19 (1.06, 1.34) 1.18 (1.05, 1.33) 1.44 (1.14, 1.83) 1.10 (0.95, 1.26)
< 4-year college degree 0.80 (0.72, 0.88) 0.85 (0.77, 0.94) 0.99 (0.88, 1.12) 0.99 (0.88, 1.11) 1.13 (0.90, 1.41) 0.93 (0.81, 1.07)
BMI 1.01 (1.01, 1.02) 1.01 (1.00, 1.01) 1.00 (1.00, 1.01) 1.00 (1.00, 1.01) 1.44 (1.14, 1.83) 1.00 (1.00, 1.01)
Psychological symptomsa 2.61 (2.36, 2.89) 1.62 (1.43, 1.83) 1.60 (1.41, 1.81) 1.94 (1.54, 2.45) 1.48 (1.28, 1.72)
Current smoker 2.05 (1.80, 2.33) 1.78 (1.56, 2.03) 1.54 (1.31, 1.81) 1.52 (1.30, 1.79) 1.65 (1.25, 2.16) 1.42 (1.16, 1.74)
Cutaneous allodynia 1.22 (1.08, 1.37) 1.09 (0.95, 1.25) 1.61 (1.28, 2.03) 1.08 (0.94, 1.25)
MHDs (vs 0–4, reference)    1.0    
 5–9 2.50 (2.15, 2.90) 2.50 (2.15, 2.90) 2.46 (1.89, 3.20) 2.52 (2.10, 3.01)
 10–14 9.73 (8.27, 11.45) 9.75 (8.28, 11.47) 8.20 (6.03, 11.16) 10.44 (8.60, 12.67)
  ≥ 15 27.34 (23.43, 31.89) 27.45 (23.53, 32.04) 21.01 (15.64, 28.21) 30.25 (25.20, 36.30)
MSSS 1.06 (1.04, 1.09) 1.06 (1.04, 1.09) 1.06 (1.02, 1.10) 1.06 (1.03, 1.09)
Pain intensity 1.27 (1.22, 1.32) 1.27 (1.22, 1.32) 1.21 (1.13, 1.31) 1.28 (1.22, 1.35)
Sex-by-allodynia interaction 1.53 (1.18, 1.97)
  1. MHD monthly headache day, MSSS Migraine Symptom Severity Scale
  2. aAnxiety and/or depression, as determined by the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4)
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