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Table 4 Multivariate regression analyses of the associations between head injury and relative headache status in HUNT3 versus HUNT2 with regard both to suffering from headache as well as to change in headache frequency

From: Headache following head injury: a population-based longitudinal cohort study (HUNT)

   All Men Women
   Adjustment for age and sex Complete adjustmenta Complete adjustmenta Complete adjustmenta
  N N (OR, 95% CI) N (OR, 95% CI) N (OR, 95% CI) N (OR, 95% CI)
Improvement of headache status1
 No head injury (reference) 25,662 5413 (ref.) 5413 (ref.) 1852 (ref.) 3561 (ref.)
 Any head injury 294 59 (1.22, 0.89–1.68) 59 (1.21, 0.85–1,72) 28 (1.30, 0.81–2.08) 31 (1.06, 0.63–1.80)
 Minimal head injury 35 12 (1.62, 0.76–3.44) 12 (1.35, 0.56–3.24) 2 (0.76, 0.15–3.82) 10 (1.65, 0.54–4.98)
 Mild head injury 211 40 (1.26, 0.86–1.84) 40 (1.27, 0.83–1.95) 20 (1.39, 0.79–2.47) 20 (1.09, 0.58–2.07)
 Moderate head injury 32 6 (1.16, 0.44–3.02 6 (1.23, 0.45–3.31) 5 (1.51, 0.51–4.42) 1 (0.66, 0.06–7.63)
Stable headache suffering and frequency2
 No head injury (reference) 25,662 4234 (ref.) 4234 (ref.) 1302 (ref.) 2932 (ref.)
 Any head injury 294 55 (1.55, 1.11–2.15) 55 (1.60, 1.12–2.28) 28 (1.86, 1.16–2.99) 27 (1.30, 0.76–2.21)
 Minimal head injury 35 5 (0.88, 0.32–2.45) 5 (0.71, 0.23–2.25) 3 (1.37, 0.33–5.68) 2 (0.28, 0.03–2.39)
 Mild head injury 211 40 (1.71, 1.15–2.53) 40 (1.83, 1.20–2.79) 20 (2.14, 1.22–3.76) 20 (1.48, 0.79–2.77)
 Moderate head injury 32 5 (1.26, 0.44–3.61) 5 (1.06, 0.33–3.40) 3 (0.87, 0.19–4.02) 2 (1.40, 0.18–10.82)
Exacerbation of headache status3
 No head injury (reference) 25,662 3026 (ref.) 3026 (ref.) 1181 (ref.) 1845 (ref.)
 Any head injury 294 43 (1.55, 1.09–2.21) 43 (1.52, 1.02–2.25) 26 (1.87, 1.14–3.05) 17 (1.08, 0.56–2.08)
 Minimal head injury 35 1 (0.24, 0.03–1.83) 1 (0.26, 0.03–2.03) 1 (0.62, 0.07–5.16) 0 (−)
 Mild head injury 211 37 (2.00, 1.35–2.98) 37 (1.93, 1.24–3.02) 22 (2.40, 1.37–4.21) 15 (1.37, 0.66–2.85)
 Moderate head injury 32 5 (1.56, 0.55–4.41) 5 (1.65, 0.57–4.79) 3 (1.42, 0.39–5.22) 2 (2.09, 0.27–16.16)
  1. One analysis was done with head injury as a binary variable (no head injury/any head injury) and a separate analysis was done with head injury in four categories according to head injury severity (no head injury/minimal head injury/mild head injury/moderate head injury). The head injury severity was classified according to the Head Injury Severity Scale (HISS)
  2. Reference category: Stable non-sufferer (absence of headache suffering in both surveys)
  3. Abbreviations: OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  4. 1Improvement of headache status: Absence of previously reported headache or decrease in its frequency
  5. 2Stable headache suffering and frequency: Headache suffering in both HUNT2 and HUNT3 with the same frequency in both studies
  6. 3Exacerbation of headache status: New onset of headache or increased frequency of previously reported headache
  7. aAnalyses are adjusted for age, sex, duration of education, daily smoking, CAGE score ≥ 1 and HADS-score
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