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Table 2 Multivariate regression analyses of the associations between head injury and relative headache status in HUNT3 versus HUNT2 with regard to suffering from headache only

From: Headache following head injury: a population-based longitudinal cohort study (HUNT)

   All Men Women
   Adjustment for age and sex Complete adjustmenta Complete adjustmenta Complete adjustmenta
  N N (OR, 95% CI) N (OR, 95% CI) N (OR, 95% CI) N (OR, 95% CI)
Past headache suffering
 No head injury (reference) 25,662 4474 (ref.) 4474 (ref.) 1603 (ref.) 2871 (ref.)
 Any head injury 294 49 (1.21, 0.87–1.69) 49 (1.23, 0.85–1.78) 24 (1.35, 0.82–2.21) 25 (1.06, 0.60–1.86)
 Minimal head injury 35 7 (1.15, 0.47–2.80) 7 (0.94, 0.33–2.70) 1 (0.50, 0.06–4.14) 6 (1.17, 0.33–4.18)
 Mild head injury 211 36 (1.35, 0.91–2.00) 36 (1.39, 0.89–2.15) 18 (1.53, 0.85–2.75) 18 (1.19, 0.61–2.32)
 Moderate head injury 32 5 (1.13, 0.41–3.13) 5 (1.24, 0.43–3.54) 4 (1.41, 0.44–4.49) 1 (0.93, 0.08–10.52)
Stable headache suffering
 No head injury (reference) 25,662 6223 (ref.) 6223 (ref.) 1833 (ref.) 4390 (ref.)
 Any head injury 294 80 (1.51, 1.13–2.03) 80 (1.55, 1.12–2.14) 37 (1.65, 1.06–2.56) 43 (1.37, 0.85–2.20)
 Minimal head injury 35 10 (1.20, 0.53–2.70) 10 (0.96, 0.38–2.42) 4 (1.22, 0.32–4.60) 6 (0.78, 0.21–2.86)
 Mild head injury 211 56 (1.60, 1.12–2.27) 56 (1.70, 1.15–2.50) 27 (1.91, 1.13–3.22) 29 (1.42, 0.80–2.51)
 Moderate head injury 32 9 (1.58, 0.66–3.75) 9 (1.45, 0.57–3.70) 4 (0.90, 0.24–3.34) 5 (2.54, 0.45–14.30)
New headache suffering
 No head injury (reference) 25,662 2269 (ref.) 2269 (ref.) 974 (ref.) 1295 (ref.)
 Any head injury 294 31 (1.44, 0.96–2.15) 31 (1.37, 0.88–2.15) 21 (1.89, 1.12–3.21) 10 (0.70, 0.29–1.69)
 Minimal head injury 35 1 (0.33, 0.04–2.47) 1 (0.38, 0.05–2.90) 1 (0.81, 0.10–6.75) 0 (−)
 Mild head injury 211 27 (1.86, 1.20–2.90) 27 (1.74, 1.05–2.87) 17 (2.31, 1.26–4.23) 10 (1.02, 0.41–2.52)
 Moderate head injury 32 3 (1.20, 0.34–4.22) 3 (1.30, 0.36–4.65) 3 (1.75 (0.48–6.42) 0 (−)
  1. One analysis was done with head injury as a binary variable (no head injury/any head injury) and a separate analysis was done with head injury in four categories according to head injury severity (no head injury/minimal head injury/mild head injury/moderate head injury). The head injury severity was classified according to the Head Injury Severity Scale (HISS)
  2. Reference category: Stable non-sufferer (absence of headache suffering in both surveys)
  3. Abbreviations: OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  4. aAnalyses are adjusted for age, sex, duration of education, daily smoking, CAGE score ≥ 1 and HADS-score
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