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Table 14 Studies of SPG radiofrequency ablation on head and facial pain

From: Sphenopalatine ganglion: block, radiofrequency ablation and neurostimulation - a systematic review

First author Year Medical problem Approach Imaging Temperature (°C) Type of RFA How to identify the right spot Study design Number of cases Outcome
Salar et al. [50] 1987 Sluder’s neuralgia Lateral extraoral approach Fluoroscopy 60 and 65 Continuous 0.2-0.3 V, paresthesia in the distribution of the maxillary nerve Case series 7 Disappearance of the typical pain attacks, lacrimation and nasal secretion, however, a slight, deep-seated troublesome sensation persisted
Shah et al. [84] 2004 Posttraumatic headache Infrazygomatic approach Fluoroscopy 42 Pulsed 50 Hz and 0.5 V produced tingling sensation at the root of the nose Case report 1 Pain reduced from 10/10 to 1/10
Bayer et al. [85] 2005 Chronic head and face pain Infrazygomatic approach Fluoroscopy 42 Pulsed 50 Hz up to 1 V, paresthesia elicited at the roof of the nose, motor stimulation performed at 2 Hz to rule out trigeminal contact, which results in rhythmic mandibular contraction Case series 30 21% had complete pain relief, 65% had moderate pain relief, 14% had no pain relief.
Nguyen et al. [86] 2010 Atypical trigeminal neuralgia Coronoid approach Fluoroscopy 42 Pulsed 50 Hz with 1 ms pulse duration, 0.6 V Case report 1 Symptom-free after 2 yrs.
Oomen et al. [79] 2012 Atypical facial pain, cluster headache, Sluder’s neuralgia, Sluder’s neuropathy Infrazygomatic approach Fluoroscopy 80 Unknown 50 Hz, paresthesia in the nose and not in the area of the maxillary nerve Case series 4 atypical facial pain, 2 Sluder’s neuralgia, 2 Sluder’s neuropathy, 1 post-traumatic neuropathy of infraorbital nerve, 1 postherpetic neuralgia, 1 SUNCT Adequate pain reduction: 4/4 in atypical facial pain, 2/3 in cluster headache, 1/2 in Sluder’s neuralgia, 2/2 in Sluder’s neuropathy, 1/1 in posttraumatic neuropathy, 0/1 in post-herpetic neuralgia, 0/1 in SUNCT (60% showed considerable pain relief after a single procedure).
Elahi et al. [87] 2014 Facial pain secondary to cavernous sinus meningioma removal Infrazygomatic approach Fluoroscopy 80 Continuous 50 Hz, paresthesia in the nasolabial midline region Case report 1 Satisfactory pain relief at 12 months
Akbas et al. [40] 2016 Atypical facial pain, SPG neuralgia due to herpes zoster, atypical Trigeminal neuralgia Infrazygomatic approach Fluoroscopy 42 Continuous Paresthesia at the roof of the nose at 0.5–0.7 V. To rule out trigeminal contact, motor stimulation at a frequency of 2 Hz was applied Case series 27 Pain relief not achieved in 23%, completely relieved in 35% and moderately relieved in 42% of patients