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Table 12 Studies of SPG blocks for other syndromes

From: Sphenopalatine ganglion: block, radiofrequency ablation and neurostimulation - a systematic review

Other syndromes
Author Year Medical problems Approach Imaging Medication Number of cases Study design Outcome
Byrd et al. [73] 1930 “Remote dysfunctions” Cotton tipped applicator, transnasal approach None 50% butyn Over 2000 cases Case series Remote dysfunctions were arrested
Sparer et al. [74] 1935 Recurrent convulsive seizures associated with nasal pathology Needle injection None Mixture of alcohol and novocaine 3 Case series Cessation of seizures
Ruskin et al. [29] 1946 Muscle spasms and arthritic pain Unknown None cocaine, novocaine or nupercaine 68 Case series Pain partially or completely relieved with SPGB and intramuscular injections of ironyl and calcium ascorbate
Amster et al. [28] 1948 4 migraine, 2 acute torticollis, 12 painful spastic shoulder, 2 intercostal neuritis, 3 herpes zosters, 4 persistent hiccups, 5 ureteral colic, 3 dysmenorrhea, 7 peripheral painful vascular spasm, 61 lumbosacral and sacroiliac pain Cotton tipped applicator, transnasal approach None Nupercaine, pontocaine, monocaine 103 Case series Relief of pain and spasm in 90% of cases
Ruskin et al. [75] 1949 Arthritic pain Unknown None Unknown 30 Case series Pain partially or completely relieved with SPGB and iron salt of the adenylic nucleotide
Slade et al. [51] 1986 Tear secretion with topical anesthesia Needle injection, through the greater palatine foramen None 2% lidocaine 10 Case-control (using self as control) Tear secretion significantly reduced by 73% (p < 0.001)
Henneberger et al. [36] 1988 Nicotine addiction Cotton tipped applicator, transnasal approach None Bupivacaine, cocaine or saline 6 with bupivacaine, 5 with cocaine, 6 with saline Double-blind placebo-controlled Significantly fewer symptoms of discomfort for patients in the anesthetic treatment groups than the placebo group
Silverman et al. [37] 1993 Experimentally induced pain (submaximal effort tourniquet test) Cotton tipped applicator None 20% lidocaine and epinephrine 16 healthy volunteers Double-blind, cross-over study No significant difference between experimental and placebo groups
Quevedo et al. [76] 2005 Complex regional pain syndrome involving the lower extremity Cotton tip applicator, transnasal None 4% tetracaine 2 Case series 50% pain reduction
Triantafyllidi et al. [77] 2016 Hypertension Cotton tip applicator, transnasal None 2% lidocaine 22 Cohort study Systolic blood pressure significantly decreased by 24 hrs and by 21-30 days
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