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Table 2 Characteristics of the original research studies included in the systematic review

From: Hormonal contraceptives and risk of ischemic stroke in women with migraine: a consensus statement from the European Headache Federation (EHF) and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (ESC)

Study Population Design Sample size Study period Outcome of interest Exposure Diagnostic criteria for migraine Confirmation of stroke diagnosis Type of hormonal contraceptive Quality of evidence (ACCP)
Collaborative Group, 1975 [33] Women with stroke aged 15–44 years Hospital-based, case-control 430 strokes, 429 hospital controls, 451 neighborhood controls 1969–71 Ischemic stroke Migraine vs no migraine Interview; no ICHD Yes Estrogen ≥50 μg C
Tzourio, 1995 [18] Women with stroke aged <45 years Hospital-based, case-control 72 strokes, 173 controls 1990–93 Ischemic stroke Migraine vs no migraine Questionnaire; ICHD Yes Estrogen 50 μg (14.6%), 30–40 μg (73.8%), 20 μg (6.8%), progestogen only (4.8%) C
Lidegaard, 1995 [36] Women aged 15–44 years Hospital-based, case-control 497 ischemic strokes, 1396 controls 1985–1989 Ischemic stroke Migraine vs no migraine, HC use vs non-use Questionnaire; no ICHD No Estrogen 50 μg (4.5%), 30–40 μg (11.0%), progestogen only (1.5%), unspecified (1.6%) C
Schwartz, 1998 [34] Women with stroke aged 18–44 years Hospital-based, case-control 373 strokes, 1191 controls 1991–95 Ischemic stroke Migraine vs no migraine Interview; no ICHD Yes Estrogen <50 μg C
Chang, 1999 [11] Women with stroke aged 20–44 years Hospital-based, case-control 291 strokes, 736 controls 1990–94 Ischemic stroke Migraine vs no migraine Questionnaire; ICHD Yes Estrogen ≥50 μg and <50 μg (stratified data) C
Milhaud, 2001 [38] Women with ischemic stroke Hospital-based, cohort 3502 ischemic strokes (130 migraineurs) 1979–98 NA NA Interview; ICHD Yes Not specified C
Nightingale, 2004 [37] Women aged 15–49 years Hospital-based, case-control 190 strokes, 1129 controls 1992–1998 Ischemic stroke Migraine vs no migraine, HC use vs non-use Administrative code (GPRD); no ICHD Yes Not specified C
MacClellan, 2007 [17] Women with ischemic stroke aged 15–49 years Hospital-based, case-control 386 ischemic strokes, 614 controls 2001–03 Ischemic stroke Migraine with aura vs no migraine Questionnaire; ICHD Yes Not specified C
Pezzini, 2011 [39] Subjects with ischemic stroke aged ≤45 years Hospital-based, cohort 981 strokes (235 migraineurs, 50.6% women) 2000–09 NA NA Interview; ICHD Yes Not specified C
Kurth, 2016 [2] Women aged 25–42 years at baseline Prospective, cohort 115,541 women 1989–2011 Stroke Migraine with and without aura vs no migraine Questionnaire; ICHD No Not specified B
Albieri, 2016 [35] Subjects aged 25–80 years (subanalysis in women aged 25–50 years) Retrospective, cohort 49,711 ischemic strokes 2003–2011 Stroke Triptan prescription Administrative code (triptan prescription); No ICHD No Not specified C
Champaloux, 2017 [10] Women aged 15–49 years Population-based, case-control 25,887 ischemic strokes 2006–2012 Ischemic stroke Migraine with or without aura vs no migraine Administrative code (ICD-9-CM); Nno ICHD   Not specified C
  1. NA indicates not applicable; GPRD indicates General Practice Research Database; HC indicates hormonal contraceptives; ICD-9-CM indicates International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification; ICHD indicates International Classification of Headache Disorders