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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: The efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation on migraine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trails

Study Design Patients Device Dose and frequency Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
TMS Sham
Richard et al. [39] Randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled 82 82 Portable sTMS over occiput 2 pulses about 30s MA: diagnosis according to ICHD(2 edition) MA: aura > 60 min; metal implants; headache due to trauma or over use of drug.
Hatem et al. [40] Randomized, open-label 12 14 Tabletop clinic- based rTMS over the left motor cortex 12 rTMS sessions at 10 Hz CM: diagnosis according to ICHD -third edition-III (beta version). Headache due to over use of drug; other chronic primary/secondary headaches. Use of headache prophylaxis medication within 4 weeks of baseline, comorbid, psychiatric disorders, symptomatic headache, “demonstrable structural lesion by brain magnetic resonance imaging”
Adriana et al. [41] Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group 7 7 Tabletop clinic- based rTMS-DLPFC 23 sessions of active rTMS-DLPFC, total of 1600 pulses per session 18–80 years; CM: diagnosis according to ICHD (2 edition). Inability to comply. Other neurologic disorder. Contraindications to TMS. Psychotic symptom or bipolar disorder. Drug or alcohol dependent. Pregnancy. Use of drug that interfere on CE. Severe major depression. Changes in prophylactic medications.
Usha et al. [42] Randomized, placebo-controlled 47 48 Tabletop clinic- based rTMS over left frontal cortex 10 Hz rTMS, 600 pulses in 10 trains MP above the age of 15 years has >4 attacks/month in the last 3 months. Liver or kidney failure, malignancy, uncontrolled hypertension, seizure, structural brain lesion, focal neurological deficit, metal implant, pregnancy.
Filippo et al. [38] Randomized, double-blind, controlled 6 5 Tabletop clinic- based rTMS-DLPFC 12 rTMS sessions, each rTMS session consisted of 10 trains of 2-s duration, separated by 30-s pause, given at 20-Hz frequency and 90% MT intensity CM: diagnosis according to IHS [45]. Hamilton scale ≥ 7
  1. TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation, sTMS single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, rTMS repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, MA migraine with aura, ICHD International Classification of Headache Disorder, CE cortical excitability, DLPFC dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, MT motor threshold, HIS International Headache Society