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Table 1 Socio-demographic and reproductive characteristics of the study population according to types of migraine in Lima, Peru (N = 2922)

From: Migraine and the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder among a cohort of pregnant women

Characteristics All participants
(N = 2922)
No migraine
(N = 1943)
Probable migraine
(N = 613)
Migraine
(N = 366)
P-value
n % n % n % n %
Age (years) a 28.12 ± 6.31 28.30 ± 6.31 27.76 ± 6.30 27.76 ± 6.27 0.093
Age (years)          
 18–19 154 5.3 102 5.2 33 5.4 19 5.2 0.549
 20–29 1642 56.2 1068 55.0 359 58.6 215 58.7
 30–34 602 20.6 411 21.2 115 18.8 76 20.8
 ≥ 35 524 17.9 362 18.6 106 17.3 56 15.3
Education (years)          
 ≤ 6 123 4.2 77 4.0 27 4.4 19 5.2 0.142
 7–12 1599 54.8 1058 54.5 356 58.4 185 50.7
 > 12 1194 40.9 806 41.5 227 37.2 161 44.1
Pre-pregnancy self-reported BMI         
 < 18.5 30 1.2 18 1.1 9 1.7 3 1.0 0.777
 18.5–24.9 1298 53.3 865 54.1 270 51.8 163 51.9  
 25–29.9 851 34.9 545 34.1 189 36.3 117 37.3  
 > 30 256 10.5 172 10.8 53 10.2 31 9.9  
Early pregnancy measured BMI          
 < 18.5 54 1.9 26 1.4 23 3.8 5 1.4 0.001
 18.5–24.9 1405 48.6 935 48.6 278 45.9 192 53.0  
 25–29.9 1073 37.1 707 36.7 240 39.6 126 34.8  
 > 30 361 12.5 257 13.4 65 10.7 39 10.8  
Mestizo ethnicity 2194 75.2 1454 74.9 491 80.1 249 68.2 <0.001
Married/living with a partner 2360 81.1 1566 80.9 498 81.6 296 81.1 0.927
Employed 1351 46.3 953 49.1 244 39.8 154 42.1 <0.001
Difficulty paying for basics          
 Hard 1449 49.6 905 46.6 340 55.5 204 55.7 <0.001
 Not very hard 1471 50.4 1036 53.4 273 44.5 162 44.3
Difficulty paying for medical care         
 Hard 1532 52.6 937 48.4 372 60.7 223 61.1 <0.001
 Not very hard 1382 47.4 999 51.6 241 39.3 142 38.9  
Nulliparous 1425 48.9 971 50.2 289 47.2 165 45.1 0.129
Planned pregnancy 1206 41.6 823 42.6 252 41.4 131 36.1 0.067
Gestational age at interview a 9.23 ± 3.46 9.28 ± 3.49 9.14 ± 3.40 9.11 ± 3.42 0.545
Intimate partner violence b 1064 36.5 648 33.4 243 39.8 173 47.7 <0.001
Childhood abuse          
 No abuse 827 28.3 590 30.4 161 26.3 76 20.8 <0.001
 Physical only 1135 38.8 761 39.2 237 38.7 137 37.4
 Sexual only 230 7.9 155 8.0 41 6.7 34 9.3
 Both physical and sexual 730 25.0 437 22.5 174 28.4 119 32.5
PTSD (PCL-C ≥26) 1093 37.4 585 30.1 276 45.0 232 63.4 <0.001
Depression (PHQ-9) 799 27.6 435 22.6 193 31.7 171 47.2 <0.001
  1. Due to missing data, percentages may not add up to 100%
  2. a mean ± SD (standard deviation): How many weeks pregnant were you during your first prenatal care visit?
  3. b Lifetime intimate partner violence
  4. For continuous variables, P-value was calculated using the one-way ANOVA; for categorical variables, P-value was calculated using the Chi-square test
  5. P-values that are italicized are all <0.05