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Table 2 Risk factors for moderate-to-severe headache at the 12-month follow-up

From: Post-traumatic headache in patients with minimal traumatic intracranial hemorrhage after traumatic brain injury: a retrospective matched case-control study

  Simple logistic regression Multiple logistic regression
  OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Age in years
 <35 1    
 ≥35 1.407 (0.529–3.106) 0.748   
Gender     
 Female 1    
 Male 0.912 (0.478–2.106) 0.649   
Initial GCS     
 15 1    
 <15 1.794 (0.593–3.377) 0.573   
Cause of traumatic brain injury
 Motor vehicle accident 1    
 Fall from height 2.975 (0.636–4.647) 0.443   
 Direct hit on the head 0.846 (0.743–3.226) 0.384   
Mechanism of traumatic brain injury
 Whiplash 1    
 Head being struck 1.839 (0.475–7.552) 0.751   
 Head striking an object 2.883 (0.748–3.424) 0.395   
Loss of consciousness
 No 1   1  
 Yes 2.174 (0.944–3.806) 0.078 2.311 (0.839–4.394) 0.162
Vomiting     
 No 1    
 Yes 2.082 (0.624–4.771) 0.736   
Tinnitus     
 No 1    
 Yes 0.859 (0.344–1.176) 0.611   
Visual symptoms    
 No 1    
 Yes 1.075 (0.525–3.239) 0.522   
Confusion     
 No 1    
 Yes 1.742 (0.438–2.262) 0.704   
Post-traumatic amnesia    
 No 1    
 Yes 2.242 (0.748–5.680) 0.663   
Post-traumatic seizure    
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.779 (1.205–4.430) 0.035 1.520 (1.128–6.785) 0.047
Previously diagnosed headache    
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.835 (0.806–4.704) 0.082 1.503 (0.724–5.960) 0.179
Initial headache intensity    
 Mild (NRS 0–3) 1   1  
 Moderate-to-Severe
 (NRS 4–10)
2.927 (1.348–4.612) 0.044 2.154 (0.925–6.319) 0.094
mTIH    
 No 1   1  
 Yes 2.883 (1.038–6.124) 0.021 2.194 (1.285–8.475) 0.039
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, mTIH minimal traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, NRS numeric rating scale, OR odds ratio