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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of propensity score-matched subjects

From: Post-traumatic headache in patients with minimal traumatic intracranial hemorrhage after traumatic brain injury: a retrospective matched case-control study

  mTIH (n = 57) non-mTIH (n = 57) p value
Age (mean ± SD) 34.7 ± 11.2 34.4 ± 11.9 0.916
Female (n, %) 25 (43.9) 26 (45.6) 0.864
Initial GCS score (n, %) 0.838
 15 25 (43.9) 27 (47.4)  
 14 21 (36.8) 21 (36.8)  
 13 11 (19.3) 9 (15.8)  
Cause of traumatic brain injury (n, %) 0.782
 Motor vehicle accident 34 (59.6) 33 (57.9)  
 Fall from height 12 (21.1) 12 (21.1)  
 Direct hit on the head 11 (19.3) 12 (21.1)  
Mechanism of traumatic brain injury (n, %) 0.705
 Whiplash 7 (12.3) 9 (15.8)  
 Head being struck 11 (19.3) 12 (21.1)  
 Head striking an object 39 (68.4) 36 (63.2)  
Type of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (n, %) -
 Subarachnoid 39 (68.4) -  
 Contusional 2 (3.5) -  
 Epidural 17 (29.8) -  
 Subdural 28 (49.1) -  
 Intraventricular 4 (7.0) -  
Loss of consciousness (n, %) 39 (68.4) 23 (42.6) 0.046
Vomiting (n, %) 19 (33.3) 13 (22.8) 0.194
Tinnitus (n, %) 4 (7.0) 7 (12.3) 0.341
Visual symptoms (n, %) 5 (8.8) 3 (5.3) 0.436
Confusion (n, %) 13 (22.8) 9 (15.8) 0.208
Post-traumatic amnesia (n, %) 15 (26.3) 10 (17.5) 0.145
Post-traumatic seizure (n, %) 6 (10.5) 1 (1.8) 0.005
Previously diagnosed headache (n, %) 9 (15.8) 14 (24.6) 0.172
Antiplatelet agent (n, %) 4 (7.0) 5 (8.8) 0.734
Anticoagulant (n, %) 1 (1.8) 0 (0) 0.681
Initial headache intensity (n, %)    0.079
 Mild (NRS 0–3) 14 (24.6) 19 (33.3)  
 Moderate-to-Severe (NRS 4–10) 43 (75.4) 38 (66.7)  
PTH at 12-month follow-up (n, %) 0.012
 Mild (NRS 0–3) 40 (70.2) 49 (86.0)  
 Moderate-to-Severe (NRS 4–10) 17 (29.8) 8 (14.0)  
  1. Abbreviations: GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, mTIH minimal traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, NRS numeric rating scale, PTH post-traumatic headache, SD standard deviation