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Table 2 Odds ratios of co-existing M, TTH and NP and health-related variables controlled for educational attainment

From: Level of physical activity, well-being, stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain

  ORa (95% CI) p value ORb (95% CI) p value
Physical activityc
 High Ref   Ref  
 Moderate 2.5 (1.28 – 4.91) 0.007 2.7 (1.35 – 5.36) 0.005
 Low 4.7 (1.79 – 12.55) 0.002 4.4 (1.62 – 11.72) 0.004
Missing, n 16    
Psychological well-being ≤ 50d
 No Ref   Ref  
 Yes 8.8 (4.19 – 18.36) <0.001 9.3 (9.35 – 19.86) <0.001
Missing, n 1    
Stresse
 Low Ref   Ref  
 Moderate 1.8 (0.89 – 3.73) 0.103 1.6 (0.74 – 3.32) 0.238
 High 5.2 (2.48 – 10.96) <0.001 6.0 (2.78 – 12.98) <0.001
Missing 1    
Poor self-rated healthf
 No Ref   Ref  
 Yes 39.2 (13.32 – 115.15) <0.001 37.7 (12.77 – 111.52) <0.001
  1. The analyses were conducted by binary logistic regression and estimated as OR and 95% CI
  2. CI confidence interval, M migraine, NP neck pain, OR odds ratio, Ref reference value, TTH tension-type headache
  3. aOR = unadjusted
  4. bOR = adjusted for educational attainment
  5. cAssessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short form) low, moderate and high physical activity was based on time and energy expenditure in the past 7 days
  6. dAssessed using the World Health Organisation five-item Well-Being Index (WHO-5) sum score from 0 to 100; sores ≤ 50 indicate poor psychological well-being
  7. eAssessed using stress scores with end-points 0 = no stress at all and 10 = very high degree of stress; scores 0–3 = low, scores 4–6 = moderate, scores 7–10 = high stress
  8. fAssessed using self-rated health with end-points 1 = very poor to 5 = very good; scores 1–3 indicated poor self-rated health