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Table 1 Health-related variables, headache and neck pain frequencies in persons with co-existing M, TTH and NP

From: Level of physical activity, well-being, stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain

  All
N = 148
M-TTH-NP
N = 100
Healthy controls
N = 100
p value
M-TTH-NP
healthy controls
Age, mean (SD) 41 (11.1) 40 (11.4) 39 (10.2) 0.49
Sex, n (%)     0.81
 Women 129 (87) 90 91  
 Men 19 (13) 10 9  
Educational attainment, n (%)     0.014
 <3 years higher education 57 (40) 42 26  
 ≥3 years higher education 85 (60) 56 73  
Missing, n 6 2 1  
Physical activitya, n (%)     0.001
 Low 29 (23) 18 (21) 7 (8)  
 Moderate 50 (40) 34 (41) 25 (27)  
 High 47 (37) 32 (38) 59 (65)  
Missing, n 22 16 9  
Psychological well-being ≤ 50b, n (%)     <0.001
 No 75 (51) 48 89  
 Yes 73 (49) 52 11  
Missing, n 1 1   
Stressc, n (%)     < 0.001
 Low 61 (42) 38 66  
 Moderate 33 (22) 22 21  
 High 53 (36) 39 13  
Missing, n 1 1   
Poor self-rated healthd     < 0.001
 No 58 (39) 38 96  
 Yes 90 (61) 62 4  
Migraine days/month, median (q1, q3) 6 (4, 10) 6 (3, 10) - -
TTH days/month, median (q1, q3) 9 (4, 18) 9 (4, 15) - -
NP days/month, median (q1, q3) 11.5 (5, 30) 13 (5, 30) - -
Chronic migraine, n (%) 41 (28) 28 - -
Chronic TTH, n (%) 21 (14) 17 - -
Chronic NP, n (%) 54 (37) 49 - -
  1. Independent-samples t-test was used to test for differences in age; Chi-square test was used to test for difference in sex, educational attainment, physical activity, psychological well-being, stress and poor self-rated health
  2. M migraine, NP neck pain, n numbers, q quartiles, q1 and q3 refer to first and third quartiles, SD standard deviation, TTH tension-type headache
  3. aAssessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short form) low, moderate and high physical activity was based on time and energy expenditure in the past 7 days
  4. bAssessed using the World Health Organisation five-item Well-Being Index (WHO-5) sum score from 0-100; sores ≤ 50 indicate poor psychological well-being
  5. cAssessed using stress scores with end-points 0 = no stress at all and 10 = very high degree of stress; scores 0–3 = low, scores 4–6 = moderate, scores 7–10 = high stress
  6. dAssessed using self-rated health with end-points 1 = very poor to 5 = very good; scores 1–3 indicated poor self-rated health