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Table 3 Studies on the role of CGRP in inflammatory pain

From: Calcitonin gene-related peptide and pain: a systematic review

Study Objectives Reported pain as part of phenotype Method and sample size Source of CGRP Results Duration of the investigated condition Correlation between CGRP level and pain
Geber, 2007 [1] Evaluate pain, hyperalgesia and neurosecretory function in pain models with CAP and ES Experimental pain: CAP and ES Samples from dermal microdialysis taken from 10 healthy volunteers. Patients rated pain levels after CAP and ES stimulation Blood
CGRP increase was measured after CAP, not after ES 2 h NR
Hamed, 2011 [2] Determine cutaneous innervation in burn patients with chronic pain Chronic inflammatory skin pain Skin biopsies from 12 patients and 33 controls suffering from unilateral injury, without pain Tissue biopsies
Increase in CGRP density compared to controls >24 months CGRP-levels were higher in patients with pain compared to controls
Krämer, 2005 [3] Explore effect of specific blockers of NEP (phosphoramidon) and ACE (captopril) on intensity of neurogenic inflammation Experimental pain: ES Samples from dermal microdialysis were taken from 8 healthy volunteers.
Patients quantified pain sensation during electrical stimulation using VAS
Dermal microdialysis CGRP release could be measured after phosphoramidon perfusion 1 h CGRP release did not correlate to pain ratings during phosphoramidon infusion
Kwak, 2014 [4] Evaluate CGRP’s effect on wound healing process in hypertrophic scar formation Inflammatory pain in scars Skin biopsies from 43 patients. Biopsies were taken from scars, and also from a normal skin area Tissue biopsies
Increased CGRP-levels in scars compared to matched unburned skin >12 months Increased CGRP-levels in painful scar areas compared to normal skin
Onuoha, 2001 [5] Examine plasma CGRP levels in patients with burns Inflammatory pain from burn Plasma was obtained from 13 patients immediately on hospital admission and 24 h after admission. 13 volunteers served as controls Blood
CGRP levels were higher on admission, 4.9 pmol/L and after 24 h, 7.3 pmol/L, than in controls, 1.9 pmol/L NR NR
Salomon, 2008 [6] Evaluate CGRP-levels in AD patients during exacerbation and disease remission Pruritus due to AD Plasma from 49 patients and 32 healthy controls Blood
CGRP-levels were lower compared to healthy controls Mean 20.75 years (1-55years) High CGRP concentrations correlated with
severe pruritus
Schmelz, 1997 [7] Examine neuropeptide release in human skin elicited by histamine iontopheresis and topical CAP application Experimental pain: histamine iontopheresis and CAP application Samples from dermal microdialysis taken from 10 healthy volunteers.
Patients were pain free prior start
Dermal microdialysis CGRP concentration increased after histamine iontophoresis, but not capsaicin application 3 h NR
Simone, 1998 [8] Determine whether hyperalgesia after intradermal injection of CAP could be attributed to morphological changes in ENF’s Experimental pain: intradermal CAP injection Skin biopsies from 8 healthy volunteers Tissue biopsies
Complete loss of CGRP-fibers was observed 72 h after capsaicin injections. They reappeared 3–4 weeks after 6 weeks NR
  1. ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme, AD Atopic dermatitis, CAP Capsaicin injection, ENF’s Epidermal nerve fibers, ES Electrical current stimulation, NEP Neutral endopeptidase