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Table 2 Studies on the role of CGRP in visceral pain

From: Calcitonin gene-related peptide and pain: a systematic review

Study Objectives Reported pain as part of phenotype Method and sample size Source of CGRP Results Duration of the investigated condition Correlation between CGRP level and pain
Arellano, 2011[1] Investigate nerve growth factor role in development of pelvic pain in patients with endometriosis Pain from endometriosis Peritoneal fluids from 65 patients, 54 with pain, 11 without pain.
22 controls, where 12 reported pelvic pain
Peritoneal fluid CGRP-neurite outgrowth was seen in patients NR The CGRP-neurite outgrowth did not correlate with pain symptoms
Büchler, 1992 [2] Identify characteristics of peptidergic innervation in patients with chronic pancreatitis Pain from chronic pancreatitis Pancreatic tissue from 20 patients compared to 10 organ donors Tissue biopsies
(pancreatic tissue)
CGRP-immunostaining was intensified in patients NR NR
Mönnikes, 2005 [3] Assess whether functional dyspepsia (FD) patients have altered mucosal CGRP concentrations Pain from functional dyspepsia Gastric mucosal biopsies from 13 patients and 18 controls.
Biopsies were taken during gastric distention
Tissue biopsies
(gastric mucosa)
No difference in CGRP-levels between patients and controls The gastric distention took up to 80 min A negative correlation between CGRP concentrations and pain was observed in patients.
No such correlation was found in controls
Tokushige, 2006 [4] Determine the nerve fibers in patients with peritoneal endometriosis Pain from endometriosis Peritoneal endometriotic tissue from 40 patients and 36 healthy controls. Also 9 specimens from endosalpingiosis lesions were prepared Tissue biopsies
(endometriotic tissue)
Increase of CGRP-nerve fibers in patients, compared to controls and endosalpingiosis lesions NR NR
Tokushige, 2007 [5] Investigate types of nerve fibers in endometrium and myometrium in women with endometriosis Pain from endometriosis Tissue biopsies from 10 patients and 35 controls.
All tissue biopsies were taken during hysterectomy
Tissue biopsies
(endometriotic tissue)
Increased nerve fiber densities compared to controls NR NR
Tympanidis, 2003 [6] Evaluate nerve fiber density and pattern in patients with vulvodynia Pain from vulvodynia Biopsies from the wall of the vulval vestibule from 12 patients and 8 controls Tissue biopsies
(vulval vestibule)
No difference in CGRP-immunostaining between patients and controls NR NR
Währborg, 1999 [7] Clarify potential involvement of CGRP in anginal pain and myocardial ischemia in humans Chest pain from angina and acute myocardial infarction Plasma from 87 patients with AMI compared to 14 patients with severe angina pectoris Blood
(plasma)
No difference in CGRP-levels between patients with AMI and angina pectoris At least 15 min No correlation between CGRP-levels and pain
Yoshida, 2013 [8] Estimate expression of CGRP in esophageal mucosa in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) patients Pain due to NERD Biopsies from 24 patients, compared to 24 controls Tissue biopsies
(esophageal mucosa)
No difference in CGRP-levels between patients and controls NR NR