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Table 4 Associations between headache types and depression and anxiety, by gender

From: Headache, depression and anxiety: associations in the Eurolight project

Headache type Odds ratios [95 % CI] vs no headache as reference
Depression Anxiety
Males p Females p Males p Females p
Migraine 2.1 [1.3–3.4] 0.002 1.8 [1.1–3.1] 0.030 4.2 [2.8–6.3] <0.0001 2.4 [1.7–3.4] <0.0001
Tension-type headache 1.1 [0.7–1.8] 0.597 1.3 [0.8–2.3] 0.328 2.5 [1.7–3.7] <0.0001 1.5 [1.1–2.1] 0.021
Probable medication-overuse headache 5.5 [2.2–13.5] <0.0001 5.5 [2.9–10.5] <0.0001 10.4 [4.9–21.8] <0.0001 7.1 [4.5–11.2] <0.0001
Other headache on ≥15 days/month 1.9 [0.7–5.7] 0.242 0.6 [0.1–2.9] 0.568 4.7 [2.1–9.7] 0.0001 1.3 [0.6–2.6] 0.474