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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients with stabbing headache according to ICHD-3 beta criteria at the initial and follow-up visit

From: Field testing primary stabbing headache criteria according to the 3rd beta edition of International Classification of Headache Disorders: a clinic-based study

   All patientsa
(N = 280)
Primary stabbing headacheb
(N = 236)
Secondary stabbing headacheb
(N = 9)
P-value
Gender     
  Male 103 (36.8 %) 89 (37.7 %) 5 (55.5 %) 0.280
  Female 177 (63.2 %) 147 (62.3 %) 4 (44.4 %)
Mean age 51.4 ± 13.3 50.6 ± 13.4 54.6 ± 14.1 0.385
Fixed location   230 (97.5 %) 9 (100 %) 0.628
Pain lateralization     
  Unilateral 278 (99.3 %) 234 (99.2 %) 9 (100.0 %) 0.781
  Bilateral 2 (0.7 %) 2 (0.8 %) 0 (0.0 %)  
Location of pain     
  V1 region 27 (9.6 %) 22 (9.3 %) 1 (11.1 %) 0.857
  V2 region 28 (10.0 %) 27 (11.4 %) 1 (11.1 %)  
  V3 region 8 (2.9 %) 7 (3.0 %) 0 (0.0 %)  
  All trigeminal regions 63 (22.5 %) 55 (23.3 %) 2 (22.2 %) 0.940
  Lesser occipital nerve region 129 (46.1 %) 109 (46.2 %) 4 (44.4 %)  
  Greater occipital nerve region 80 (28.6 %) 64 (27.1 %) 3 (33.3 %)  
  Great auricular nerve 6 (2.1 %) 6 (2.5 %) 0 (0.0 %)  
  All upper cervical regions 217 (77.5 %) 181 (76.7 %) 7 (77.8 %) 0.891
  Multiple locations 2 (0.7 %) 2 (0.8 %) 0 (0.0 %) 0.782
Visual Analog Scale for pain intensity 4.6 ± 1.6 4.5 ± 1.6 6.8 ± 1.6 <0.001
Onset to hospital visit interval (days) 4.0 ± 3.7 4.0 ± 3.9 5.1 ± 2.4 0.341
Improvement at follow-up visit   226 (95.8 %) 5 (55.5 %) <0.001
Duration of improvement (days) among responders   3.2 ± 1.9 4.8 ± 1.5 0.060
Preceding infection 21 (7.5 %) 21 (8.9 %) 0 (0.0 %) 0.083
Stressful event 61 (21.8 %) 48 (20.3 %) 4 (7.7 %) 0.083
Allodynia 53 (18.9 %) 45 (19.1 %) 2 (22.1 %) 0.814
  1. aAssessed at initial visit
  2. bAssessed at follow-up visit
  3. ICHD-3 beta: the third beta edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. V1: ophthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve; V2: maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve; V3 mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve