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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics of the eligible subjects with respect to current MDD as determined by the MINI-Plus 5.0.0

From: Validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and PHQ-2 in patients with migraine

  Mean ± SD (range) or number (%)  
  No MDD MDD  
Characteristics (n = 93) (n = 39) p value*
Age, years 40.3 ± 12.6 (16–65) 38.6 ± 14.0 (17–70) 0.495
Gender, female 81 (87.1) 33 (84.6) 0.705
Education, years 13.3 ± 2.7 (6–18) 12.6 ± 2.9 (6–18) 0.204
Job, yes 49 (52.7) 26 (66.7) 0.042
Household income, at least 3 million KRW/month 69 (74.2) 20 (51.3) 0.010
Married without divorce or bereavement 64 (68.8) 20 (51.3) 0.056
Type of migraine    0.305
Migraine with aura 10 (10.8) 2 (5.1)  
Migraine without aura 83 (89.2) 37 (94.9)  
Migraine chronicity    0.007
Episodic migraine 49 (52.7) 10 (25.6)  
Chronic migraine 44 (47.3) 29 (74.4)  
MOH 23 (24.7) 13 (33.3) 0.392
Age at onset, years 30.3 ± 11.2 (8–52) 30.1 ± 12.2 (9–53) 0.947
Disease duration, years 10.0 ± 7.8 (0–37) 8.5 ± 7.8 (0–33) 0.293
Attack frequency/3 months 17.1 ± 21.5 (1–90) 23.7 ± 21.6 (1–70) 0.113
Attack duration, hours 31.0 ± 23.6 (4–72) 29.4 ± 22.1 (4–72) 0.717
Family history of migraine 65 (69.9) 24 (61.5) 0.350
Photophobia 42 (45.2) 22 (56.4) 0.238
Phonophobia 58 (62.4) 32 (82.1) 0.027
Osmophobia 41 (44.1) 19 (48.7) 0.626
PHQ-9 score 4.5 ± 3.4 (0–15) 13.4 ± 6.8 (1–27) <0.001
BDI-II score 12.0 ± 7.3 (0–34) 30.4 ± 12.4 (9–56) <0.001
MIDAS, day 16.3 ± 20.7 (0–100) 37.7 ± 40.5 (0–183) 0.003
HIT-6 score 57.8 ± 8.4 (36–78) 63.8 ± 7.3 (48–78) <0.001
MSQoL 69.0 ± 15.8 (34–99) 57.1 ± 16.2 (26–90) <0.001
  1. MDD Major Depressive Disorder, MINI-Plus 5.0.0 Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus Version 5.0.0, KRW Korean Won, MOH medication overuse headache, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9, BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory-II, MIDAS Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, HIT-6 Headache Impact Test-6, MSQoL Migraine-Specific Quality of Life
  2. *Independent t-test or chi-square tests were performed for the comparison of variables