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Table 2 Main characteristics of the studies fulfilling only broad inclusion criteria (no definition of body mass index categories according to the World Health Organization criteria)

From: Migraine and body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Study Country Design (population) Period of inclusion Age range (years) Women (%) Exposure(s) Outcome(s) of interest BMI categories Migraineurs (n, %) Underweight (n, %) Pre-obese (n, %) Obese (n, %) Type of effect estimate Confounders
Queiroz, 2009 [48] Brazil Cross-sectional 2006-2007 18-79 60.0 Pre-obesity, obesity Any migraine <25; 25.0-29.9; ≥30.0 627 (15.2) - 1,147 (29.8) 484 (12.6) PR Gender, age, education level, marital status, household income, job status, physical activity
Winter, 2009 [49] USA Cross-sectional* (WHS) 1992-1995 ≥45 100.0 Obesity Active migraine <23.0; 23.0-24.9; 25.0-26.9; 27.0-29.9; 30.0-34.9; ≥35.0 9,195 (14.5) - - 1,206 (13.1) OR Age, smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption, history of hypertension, postmenopausal status, postmenopausal hormone use, history of elevated cholesterol
Winter, 2011 [50] Germany Cross-sectional (DHS, KORA, SHIP) NR (DHS); 1994-1995 (KORA); 1997-2001 (SHIP) 25-75 (DHS); 35-75 (KORA); 25-88 (SHIP) 52.9 (DHS); 52.2 (KORA); 51.9 (SHIP) Pre-obesity, obesity Complete migraine <25; 25.0-29.9; ≥30.0 91 (8.5) [DHS]; 222 (7.9) [KORA]; 114 (4.3) [SHIP] - NR NR OR Age, gender
Yu, 2012 [51] China Cross-sectional 2009 18-65 49.2 Underweight, pre-obesity†, obesity† Any migraine <18.5; 18.5-22.9; 23.0-24.9; 25.0-29.9; ≥30.0 467 (9.3) 262 (5.2) 1,044 (20.8) 190 (3.8) OR Age, gender, habitation, marital status, occupation, education level
  1. *baseline cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study.
  2. †the authors of that paper used the terms “obesity” and “morbid obesity” to define BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and BMI≥30 kg/m2, respectively; we used BMI-based definitions instead of the given ones.
  3. BMI, body mass index; DHS, Dortmund Health Study; KORA, Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg; NR, not reported; OR, odds ratio; PR, prevalence ratio; SHIP, Study of Health in Pomerania; WHS, Women’s Health Study.