Skip to main content

Table 1 Main characteristics of the studies fulfilling narrow inclusion criteria (definition of body mass index categories according to the World Health Organization criteria)

From: Migraine and body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Study Country Design (population) Period of inclusion Age range (years) Women (%) Exposure(s) Outcome(s) of interest Migraineurs (n, %) Underweight (n, %) Pre-obese (n, %) Obese (n, %) Type of effect estimate Confounders
Bigal, 2006 [52] USA Cross-sectional 1997-2000 ≥18 65.0 Underweight, pre-obesity, obesity Any migraine 3,791 (12.5) 941 (3.1) 9,258 (30.6) 3,133 (10.4) OR Marital status, income, use of daily medications, depression
Bigal and Lipton, 2006 [53] USA Cross-sectional 1997-2000 ≥18 61.8 Underweight, pre-obesity, obesity Transformed migraine (1.3) 941 (3.1) 9,258 (30.6) 3,133 (10.4) OR Use of acute or preventive medication, age, race, socioeconomic status, depression
Gilmore, 1999 [54] Canada Cross-sectional* (NPHS) 1996-1997 20-64 49.4 Underweight, pre-obesity, obesity Any migraine NR NR (34) (12) OR Age, sex
Jiménez-Sánchez, 2013 [55] Spain Cross-sectional (SNHS-NHSRP) 2006 ≥16 50.9 (Spanish), 53.1 (Romany) Any migraine Obesity (12.5, Spanish; 29.4, Romany) - - (14.6, Spanish; 21.2, Romany) OR Gender, age, education level, occupational status, self-related health, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, sleep habits, physical exercise, hypertension, asthma, heart disease, osteoarthritis, allergy, diabetes, stomach ulcer, hypercholesterolemia,depression, osteoporosis, prostate problems, menopausal symptoms
Le, 2011 [56] Denmark Cross-sectional (DTR) 2002 20-71 69.6 Underweight, pre-obesity, obesity Any migraine 8,044 (25.2) 230 (3.0) [migraine]; 477 (2.1) [healthy] 2,072 (27.2) [migraine]; 6,973 (30.8) [healthy] 682 (9.0) [migraine]; 1,743 (7.7) [healthy] OR Age, education, employment status, physical work load, recreational physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, marital status
Mattsson, 2007 [57] Sweden Cross-sectional 1997-1998 40-74 100.0 Obesity Active migraine 130 (19.0) - - (19.3) OR Age, education
Peterlin, 2010 [58] USA Cross-sectional* (NHANES) 1999-2004 ≥20 51.2 Obesity Any migraine 4,664 (21.4) - - 6,504 (29.9) OR Age, income, education, race, smoke, alcohol use, diabetes
Peterlin, 2013 [59] USA Cross-sectional (NCS-R) 2001-2003 ≥18 50.3 Underweight, pre-obesity, obesity Episodic migraine 188 (4.9) 129 (3.3) 1,306 (33.8) 1,004 (26.0) OR Age, race, sex, smoking, poverty index, depression, diabetes
Santos, 2014 [60] Brazil Cross-sectional* (ELSA-Brazil) 2008-2010 35-74 54.0 Pre-obesity, obesity Non-daily migraine, daily migraine 4,047 (27.8) [non-daily]; 228 (1.6) [daily] - 5,915 (40.6) 3,308 (22.7) OR Age, sex, race, education level, monthly income, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, medication use
Vo, 2011 [61] USA Cross-sectional* (Omega Study) 1996-2008 ≥18 100.0 Underweight, pre-obesity, obesity Any migraine 670 (17.9) 160 (4.3) 612 (16.4) 338 (9.1) OR Age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, marital status, history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus, smoking, exercise status
Winter, 2012 [62] USA Cohort (WHS) 1992-1995 ≥45 100.0 Any migraine, MO, MA Pre-obesity, obesity 3,483 (18.2) - 7,916 (41.3) 730 (3.8) HR Age, race, randomized treatment assignments, baseline BMI, total calorie intake, alcohol consumption, exercise, smoking status, postmenopausal hormone use, postmenopausal status, history of cholesterol >240 mg/dl, history of hypertension, history of depression
  1. *baseline cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study.
  2. BMI, body mass index; DTR, Danish Twin registry; ELSA, Longitudinal Study of Adult Health; HR, hazard ratio; NCS-R, National Comorbidity Survey Replication; NHANES, National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey; NHSRP, National Health Survey in the Romany Population; NPHS, National Population Health Survey; NR, not reported; OR, odds ratio; SNHS, Spanish National Health Survey; WHS, Women’s Health Study.