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Table 1 Sensitivities, specificities, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, and overall agreement with “gold-standard” diagnoses (kappa), of the diagnostic question set for migraine and tension-type headache

From: Diagnosis, prevalence estimation and burden measurement in population surveys of headache: presenting the HARDSHIP questionnaire

Study Migraine Tension-type headache
Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV Kappa Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV Kappa
India[10]1 0.63 0.85 0.55 0.89 0.46 0.57 0.81 0.61 0.79 0.39
China[11]2 0.83 0.99 0.83 0.99 0.82 0.51 0.99 0.86 0.92 0.59
Russia[12]3 0.77 0.82 0.69 0.87 0.58 0.64 0.91 0.86 0.74 0.56
Pakistan[13]4 0.74 0.87 0.60 0.92 0.56 0.60 0.92 0.69 0.88 0.54
  1. 1Translated into Kannada; 2translated into Mandarin Chinese; 3translated into Russian; 4translated into Urdu.