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Table 1 Models of relations between sleep and headache

From: Headache and comorbidity in children and adolescents

1 Sleep as trigger factor for headache (excessive, reduced or disrupted, increased deep sleep)
2 Sleep as relieving factor for headache
3 Sleep disturbance as cause of headache (es. sleep apnea)
4 Headache as cause of sleep disturbance (es. attacks occurring during sleep)
5 Sleep disorders in headache patients (parasomnias, sleepwalking)
6 Sleep related headache:
  a) Temporal relationship (during or after sleep)
  b) Sleep stage relationship:
    1. REM sleep (migraine, cluster headache, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania)
    2. Slow-wave sleep (migraine)
7 Headache/sleep association:
  a) Intrinsic origin (modulation through the same neurotransmitters)
  b) Extrinsic origin (i.e. fibromyalgia syndrome)
  c) Reinforcement (bad sleep hygiene)