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Table 3 Primary and secondary headache disorders provoked or aggravated by coughing

From: Headache associated with cough: a review

Disorder Headache quality Cough as trigger (Other) triggers Cough as aggravator (Other) aggravators
Primary cough headache sharp/stabbing ++ Valsalva NA NA
Symptomatic cough headache mixed nature ++ Valsalva NA NA
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension non-pulsating + Valsalva + Valsalva and postural changes
Headache attributed to intracranial hypertension non-pulsating + Valsalva + Valsalva
Postictal headache pressing/pulsating - seizure + bending and sudden head movements
Headache attributed to Chiari malformation mixed nature + Valsalva + NA
High altitude headache dull/pressing - > 2500 m + exertion, movement, straining and bending
Migraine pulsating - see text + bending forward, exercise, …
Tension type headache pressing - see text + fatigue, stress, …
Cluster headache piercing + alcohol NA NA
  1. NA: not applicable.