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Table 1 Major characteristics of published series on primary cough headache

From: Headache associated with cough: a review

First author, Year [Reference] Nr of Cases Patient characteristics Headache characteristics
   M/F ratio Mean age Intensity & type Other triggers Duration Location Frequency Persistence Associated features
Symonds, 1956 [5] 21 18/3 55 severe bursting Valsalva maneuver, head rotation 2’-10’ bilateral - 18 months- 3 years -
Pascual,1996 [13] 13 10/3 67 moderate to severe sharp, stabbing Valsalva manoeuver seconds to less than 30’ bilateral (92%) unilateral (8%) one to several daily 2-24 months none
Ozge, 2005 [9] 20 13/7 45 moderate to severe sharp, stabbing not mentioned or no other triggers? 1-30’ bilateral (90%) unilateral (10%) 10 days/month - nausea (5%) dizziness (10%)
Pascual, 2008 [11] 28 10/18 60 electrical, explosive, pressing or having a mixed nature sudden postural movements, weight lifting, laughing and defecating seconds to more than 1’ unilateral (50%) bilateral (39%) occipito-suboccipital (11%) - 1-42 months dizziness (14%)
Chen, 2009 [3] 74 54/20 61 mild to severe explosive, dull, pulsatile straining at stool and bending down 1” - 2 hours bilateral (67%) unilateral (33%) - 6-24 months nausea (10%) vomiting (1%) photophobia (5%) phonophobia (11%)