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Table 2 Referred pain areas of myofascial trigger points in head and neck–shoulder muscles in children with chronic tension type headache and healthy control children (n = 50)

From: Referred pain from myofascial trigger points in head and neck–shoulder muscles reproduces head pain features in children with chronic tension type headache

  Children with chronic tension type headache# Healthy controls children
Upper trapezius Dominant side (n = 10) 32.5 ± 15.8 (21.8–39.2) Dominant side (n = 0)
Non dominant side (n = 10) 28.8 ± 18.1 (18.6–39.1) Non dominant side (n = 0)
Sternocleidomastoid Dominant side (n = 13) 27.1 ± 14.6 (16.1–38.2) Dominant side (n = 1) 12.2
Non dominant side (n = 6) 29.1 ± 14.9 (19.7–38.5) Non dominant side (n = 0)
Temporalis Dominant side (n = 38) 32.6 ± 16.9 (26.7–38.6) Dominant side (n = 3) 14.6 ± 8.1 (10.1–19.3)
Non dominant side (n = 16) 31.1 ± 18.1 (25.4–36.9) Non dominant side (n = 0)
Superficial masseter Dominant side (n = 8) 22.9 ± 9.3 (14.4–31.5) Dominant side (n = 1) 3.4
Non dominant side (n = 5) 28.7 ± 12.9 (20.6–36.8) Non dominant side (n = 0)
Superior oblique Dominant side (n = 14) 38.2 ± 18.8 (26.9–49.4) Dominant side (n = 4) 25.4 ± 9.1 (15.2–35.6)
Non dominant side (n = 15) 35.5 ± 14.4 (24.7–46.3) Non dominant side (n = 4) 26.6 ± 8.9 (18.5–34.7)
Levator scapulae Dominant side (n = 6) 52.0 ± 11.5 (32.4–71.6) Dominant side (n = 0)
Non dominant side (n = 4) 55.1 ± 16.6 (29.7–70.4) Non dominant side (n = 2) 22.8 ± 6.1 (11.1–36.7)
Suboccipital* Bilateral (n = 10) 75.4 ± 18.3 (64.2–86.6) Bilateral (n = 1) 16.2
  1. Referred pain areas (arbitrary units) are expressed as means ± standard deviation (95% confidence interval)
  2. #Significant differences between groups (P < 0.001)
  3. * Significant differences with the remaining muscles (P < 0.001)