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Table 3 Age- and gender-adjusted associations between probable migraine prevalence and lifestyle variables, restricted to age groups 35–75 years

From: Association between lifestyle factors and headache

Probable migraine DHS (n = 53) KORA (n = 72) SHIP (n = 137)
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Smoking
 Never 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Past 1.48 (0.77, 2.82) 1.49 (0.85, 2.61) 0.91 (0.57, 1.47)
 Current 0.90 (0.42, 1.93) 1.89 (1.03, 3.46) 1.55 (1.02, 2.35)
Physical activity
 None 1.00 1.00 1.00
 ≤2 h/week 2.10 (1.07, 4.12) 0.99 (0.55, 1.76) 1.03 (0.66, 1.61)
 >2 h/week 1.31 (0.65, 2.66) 0.74 (0.39, 1.38) 0.81 (0.52, 1.27)
Alcohol consumptiona
 None 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Moderate 0.85 (0.44, 1.65) 0.39 (0.21, 0.75) 0.65 (0.42, 1.01)
 Increased 0.75 (0.37, 1.52) 0.60 (0.33, 0.99) 0.50 (0.27, 0.94)
Body mass index (kg/m²)
 <25 1.00 1.00 1.00
 25.0–29.9 2.10 (1.00, 4.40) 0.90 (0.50, 1.63) 1.39 (0.91, 2.11)
 ≥30.0 2.52 (1.15, 5.49) 1.26 (0.68, 2.32) 0.94 (0.58, 1.54)
Health indexb 0.94 (0.80, 1.10) 0.80 (0.70, 0.92) 0.94 (0.85, 1.05)
  1. aGender specific alcohol consumption—males: moderate = 1–20 g/day, increased = ≥20 g/day; females: moderate = 1–10 g/day, increased = ≥10 g/day
  2. bSum of the following life style factors: smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI