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Table 2 Select studies of the association between migraine and depression

From: Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with chronic daily headache and migraine: a selective overview including personality traits and suicide risk

Study Method Migraine and depression
OR (95% CI)
Bi-directional relationship
OR (95% CI)
Longitudinal studies
 Breslau et al. [37] IHS migraine criteria Not assessed New-onset migraine
3.5 (2.2–5.6)
New-onset depression
3.6 (2.6–5.2)
 Breslau et al. [15] IHS migraine criteria 3.5 (2.6–4.6) New-onset migraine
2.8 (2.2–3.5)
New-onset depression
2.4 (1.8–3.0)
 Breslau et al. [42] IHS migraine criteria Not assessed New-onset migraine
3.4 (1.4–8.7)
New-onset depression
5.8 (2.7–12.3)
Cross-sectional studies
 Merikangas [43] Diagnosis by neurologist 2.2 (1.1–4.8) Not assessed
 Breslau et al. [15] IHS migraine criteria 3.5 (2.6–4.6) New-onset migraine
2.8 (2.2–3.5)
New-onset depression
2.4 (1.8–3.0)
 Swartz [44] IHS migraine criteria 3.1 (2.0–4.4) New-onset migraine
0.68 (0.02–2.0)
 Zwart [45] IHS migraine criteria 2.7 (2.3–3.2) Not assessed
 McWilliams [46] Diagnosis by neurologist 2.8 (2.2–3.7) Not assessed
 Patel [47] IHS migraine criteria Strict migraine
2.7 (2.2–3.3)
Probable migraine
1.9 (1.5–2.4)
Not assessed
  1. IHS International Headache Society